In this paper the authors describe a patient with neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) who presented with sequelae of this disease. They also review the current literature on NF1 and NF2 published between 2001 and 2005. The method used to obtain information for the case report consisted of a family member interview and a review of the patient's chart. For the literature review the authors used the search engine Ovid Medline to identify papers published on the topic between 2001 and 2005. Neurofibromatosis Type 1 appears in approximately one in 2500 to 4000 births, is caused by a defect on 17q11.2, and results in neurofibromin inactivation. The authors reviewed the current literature with regard to the following aspects of this disease: 1) diagnostic criteria for NF1; 2) criteria for other NF1-associated manifestations; 3) malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs); 4) the examination protocol for a patient with an NF1-related NST; 5) imaging findings in patients with NF1; 6) other diagnostic studies; 7) surgical and adjuvant treatment for NSTs and malignant PNSTs; and 8) hormone receptors in NF1-related tumors. Pertinent illustrations are included. Neurofibromatosis Type 2 occurs much less frequently than NF1, that is, in one in 33,000 births. Mutations in NF2 occur on 22q12 and result in inactivation of the tumor suppressor merlin. The following data on this disease are presented: 1) diagnostic criteria for NF2; 2) criteria for other NF2 manifestations; 3) malignant PNSTs in patients with NF2; 4) examination protocol for the patient with NF2 who has an NST; and 5) imaging findings in patients with NF2. Relevant illustrations are included. It is important that neurosurgeons be aware of the sequelae of NF1 and NF2, because they may be called on to treat these conditions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION Neurofibromatosis type 1 is one of the most common genetically transmitted diseases with a high index of spontaneous mutations and extremely varied and unpredictable clinical manifestations. It is diagnosed by the existence of certain clinical criteria. The presence of numerous localised cutaneous neurofibromas or a plexiform neurofibroma is virtually pathognomonic of neurofibromatosis type 1. The incidence of pheochromocytoma in neurofibromatosis type 1 is 0.1-5.7%. CASE OUTLINE A 56-year old female patient was admitted for further evaluation of incidental adrenal tumour previously diagnosed on computerized tomography (CT). She had previously unrecognized neurofibromatosis type 1 and a clinical picture which could remind of pheochromocytoma. None of the catecholamine samples in 24 hr urine indicated functionally active pheochromocytoma. Chromogranin A was moderately increased. Decision for operation was made after performing the image techniques. Adrenal incidentaloma had features of pheochromocytoma on abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with positive 131I-MIBG (iodine 131-labelled metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy). After being treated with phenoxybenzamine and propranolol, she was operated on. The pathohistological finding showed the case of left adrenal pheochromocytoma. CONCLUSION Detailed diagnostic procedure for pheochromocytoma should be performed with patients having neurofibromatosis type 1 and adrenal incidentaloma. Pheochromocytomas are rare tumours with fatal outcome if not duly recognized and cured.
Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo 01/2008; DOI:10.2298/SARH0806295T · 0.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phacomatoses, or neurocutaneous disorders, are a group of congenital and hereditary diseases characterized by developmental lesions of the neuroectoderm, leading to pathologies affecting the skin and the central nervous system. There is a wide range of pathologies affecting individuals at different moments of life. The genetics is variable: while neurofibromatosis 1 and 2, tuberous sclerosis and von Hippel-Lindau disease are all inherited as autosomal dominant traits, Sturge-Weber syndrome is sporadic. Other neurocutaneous disorders can be inherited as autosomal recessive traits (i.e., ataxia-telangiectasia), X-linked (i.e., incontinentia pigmenti) or explained by mosaicism (i.e., hypomelanosis of Ito, McCune-Albright syndrome). In this review, we discuss the major types of neurocutaneous disorders most frequently encountered by the neurosurgeon and followed beyond childhood. They include neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, tuberous sclerosis, Sturge-Weber syndrome and von Hippel-Lindau disease. In each case, a review of the literature, including diagnosis, genetics and treatment will be presented. The lifespan of the disease with the implications for neurosurgeons will be emphasized. A review of cases, including both pediatric and adult patients, seen in neurosurgical practices in the Lille, France and Lausanne, Switzerland hospitals between 1961 and 2007 is presented to illustrate the pathologies seen in different age-groups. Because the genes mutated in most phacomatoses are involved in development and are activated following a timed schedule, the phenotype of these diseases evolves with age. The implication of the neurosurgeon varies depending on the patient's age and pathology. While neurosurgeons tend to see pediatric patients affected with neurofibromatosis type 1, tuberous sclerosis and Sturge-Weber syndrome, there will be a majority of adult patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease or neurofibromatosis type 2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurofibromatosis 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by multiple café-au-lait spots, axillary and inguinal freckling, multiple cutaneous neurofibromas, and iris Lisch nodules. Learning disabilities are present in at least 50% of individuals with neurofibromatosis 1. Less common but potentially more serious manifestations include plexiform neurofibromas, optic nerve and other central nervous system gliomas, malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, scoliosis, tibial dysplasia, and vasculopathy. The diagnosis of neurofibromatosis 1 is usually based on clinical findings. Neurofibromatosis 1, one of the most common Mendelian disorders, is caused by heterozygous mutations of the NF1 gene. Almost one half of all affected individuals have de novo mutations. Molecular genetic testing is available clinically but is infrequently needed for diagnosis. Disease management includes referral to specialists for treatment of complications involving the eye, central or peripheral nervous system, cardiovascular system, spine, or long bones. Surgery to remove both benign and malignant tumors or to correct skeletal manifestations is sometimes warranted. Annual physical examination by a physician familiar with the disorder is recommended. Other recommendations include ophthalmologic examinations annually in children and less frequently in adults, regular developmental assessment in children, regular blood pressure monitoring, and magnetic resonance imaging for follow-up of clinically suspected intracranial and other internal tumors.
Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 12/2009; 12(1):1-11. DOI:10.1097/GIM.0b013e3181bf15e3 · 7.33 Impact Factor
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