Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global health problem, with more than 350 million people chronically infected worldwide. The chronic HBV infection in Poland is also an essential medical and social problem. Starting from 1993, a steady decline of the incidence of HBV has been observed, reaching the estimated rate of 4.5 per 100 000 in 2004. Nothing is known about the genetic variability of HBV in Poland, the occurrence and spreading of genetic variants and mutants of hepatitis B virus in the population of Polish patients during the course of the disease and in relation to antiviral treatment. It is very interesting to study the molecular epidemiology of the Polish population regarding hepatitis B virus infection as Poland is still ethnically a uniform country, with no more than 3-4% of ethnic minorities. The first results regarding distribution of HBV genotypes and serotypes in northern Poland have been published by our group in 2003 and 2004. This work was part of a scientific project supported by the Fifth Framework Programme initiative of the European Union, entitled "Emerging variants of hepatitis B virus: new tools for epidemiological survey, diagnosis of infection, and monitoring of drug resistance". In the course of the project more than 200 hepatitis B infected patients from the northern part of Poland have been enrolled, diagnosed and - if the viral load of HBV was suitable for analysis - genotyped by sequencing of the HBV pol/S gene fragment. This review presents the main characteristics and some interesting aspects of the studied cohort of chronically infected patients from northern Poland as well as the molecular epidemiology.
", 2005 ] . In contrast , other central European countries such as Poland and the Czech Republic are still quite uniform ethnically , for example , the proportion of immigrants does not exceed 3 – 4% [ Bielawski and Stalke , 2005 ] . These data indicate that the emerging epidemiology of HBV infection in Central and Eastern Europe is not due to immigration of HBsAg - positive persons from high endemic Asian countries . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been performed in Poland since 2005 on samples seronegative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), and anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV). Tools included 24-donation pool testing (PT) using Cobas Amplicor or in individual donations (ID) by Procleix Ultrio. Seven of 761,666 (1:108,800) and 21/250,191 (1:11,900) HBV DNA-positive donations were identified and confirmed by alternative methods. HBV DNA load ranged between 11.6 and 4.6 x 10(4) IU/mL in 11 samples and could not be quantified in 17 samples. HBV genotypes A (56%) and D (4%) were found. The analysis of combined results from index, follow-up, and look-back samples identified four groups: (1) Two cases tested HBsAg positive with alternative, more sensitive, assays; (2) Four cases were in the pre-seroconversion window period; (3) Eight cases had a fluctuating pattern of HBV DNA and anti-HBs detection (recovered infection); and (4) twelve cases carried anti-HBc without anti-HBs, which might correspond to either chronic or recovered "occult" HBV infection. One donor with no HBV markers in the follow-up was excluded, and another was in the window period preceding anti-HBs. HBV NAT identified more confirmed positive donors than HCV or HIV NAT, and 1:250,000 could not be detected by anti-HBc screening. Serological and molecular studies on follow-up and look-back samples are important to classify donors. In conclusion, further studies are needed to determine whether the considerably higher yield of HBV DNA detection obtained with individual donation screening improves blood safety compared with anti-HBc screening.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The eight genotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) exhibit distinct geographical distributions. This study identified HBV genotypes and transmission modes associated with acute infection in British Columbia (BC), Canada, from 2001 to 2005. Seventy cases of acute HBV in BC were identified from laboratory reports using a standardized case definition. Interviews for risk factors and hepatitis history were conducted for each case. HBV genotypes were determined by BLAST comparison analysis of the surface (S) or preS gene sequence. To illustrate the distribution of genotypes identified amongst acute cases in BC, an annotated map was produced showing the global occurrence of HBV genotypes. The majority of acute HBV cases occurred in Caucasian, Canadian-born males, with 30% of cases reporting injection drug use (IDU) and 21% reporting incarceration. The most common genotype observed was genotype D (62.9%), followed by genotypes A (18.6%), C (11.4%), B (4.3%), and E (1.4%). A significant association was observed between Genotype D and IDU (P = 0.0025) and previous incarceration (P = 0.0067). Phylogenetic analysis of the S gene sequence demonstrated identical or high genetic relatedness amongst genotype D viral strains (86% sub-genotype D3), thus verifying transmission clustering amongst BC injection drug users. The association between acute HBV genotype and reported transmission modes has not been previously described in North America. Tracking of genotypes can help identify disease transmission patterns and target at-risk populations for preventive immunization.
Jonathan Ramirez, Anupama Thadareddy Duddempudi, Moazzam M Sana, Syed S Hasan, Mario de Los Santos, Juhee Song, Ying Fang-Hollingsworth, Sandeep S Gupta, Dawn M Sears
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