Characterization of bacterial communities associated with deep-sea corals on Gulf of Alaska seamounts.
ABSTRACT Although microbes associated with shallow-water corals have been reported, deepwater coral microbes are poorly characterized. A cultivation-independent analysis of Alaskan seamount octocoral microflora showed that Proteobacteria (classes Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria), Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria dominate and vary in abundance. More sampling is needed to understand the basis and significance of this variation.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Jonathan A Eisen, Jun 15, 2015
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ABSTRACT: The 16S rRNA gene sequence diversity within the Phylum Actinobacteria was assessed from four sources: PCR-generated V6 sequence tags derived from seawater samples, metagenomic data from the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) expedition, marine-derived sequences maintained in the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP), and select cultured strains for which sequence data is not yet available in the RDP. This meta-analysis revealed remarkable levels of phylogenetic diversity and confirms the existence of major, deeply rooted, and as of yet uncharacterized lineages within the phylum. A dramatic incongruence among cultured strains and those detected using culture-independent techniques was also revealed. Redundancy among the actinobacteria detected using culture-independent techniques suggests that greater sequence coverage or improved DNA extraction efficiencies may be required to detect the rare phylotypes that can be readily cultured from marine samples. Conversely, new strategies need to be developed for the cultivation of frequently observed but yet to be cultured marine actinobacteria.Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 07/2008; 94(1):51-62. DOI:10.1007/s10482-008-9239-x · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A culture-independent survey was performed to search for 16S rRNA gene sequences representing dominant and metabolically active bacteria in rhizosphere soil. PCR- and reverse transcription-PCR-derived clone libraries were constructed from DNA and RNA directly extracted from the soil sample. Acidobacteria-related sequences occupied an unusually large proportion (>50%) of both rDNA- and rRNA-derived clone libraries. This study suggested that the bacteria belonging to the phylum Acidobacteria might be numerically dominant as well as metabolically active in the soil sample, implying that the phylum Acidobacteria might be highly involved in the biogeochemical cycles of the rhizosphere soil.FEMS Microbiology Letters 06/2008; 285(2):263-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01232.x · 2.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study examined the microbiota associated with the marine azooxanthellate octocorals Leptogorgia minimata, Swiftia exertia, and Iciligorgia schrammi collected from moderate depths (45 m). Traditional aerobic plate culture, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and molecular identification of the 16S rDNA region were used for this purpose. In general, cultures were found to be selective for Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. Interestingly, FISH counts for Firmicutes in the whole coral (holobiont) were near the detection limit of this assay, representing less than 6% of the total detectable microbiota in all counts. Proteobacteria, especially Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, made up the majority of the total microbiota in the holobionts. In addition, the absence of zooxanthellae in these three corals was confirmed by the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dinoflagellate-specific primers, and spectrophotometric chlorophyll pigment measurements. No evidence of zooxanthellae could be found in any of the corals by either of these techniques. This is the first study examining the microbiota marine octocorals, which grow at moderate depth (40 to 100 m) in the absence of direct sunlight.Marine Biotechnology 10/2007; 9(5):561-76. DOI:10.1007/s10126-007-9009-1 · 3.15 Impact Factor