Article

VEGF-C is a trophic factor for neural progenitors in the vertebrate embryonic brain.

Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), U711, Paris F-75013, France.
Nature Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 14.98). 04/2006; 9(3):340-8. DOI: 10.1038/nn1646
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) was first identified as a regulator of the vascular system, where it is required for the development of lymphatic vessels. Here we report actions of VEGF-C in the central nervous system. We detected the expression of the VEGF-C receptor VEGFR-3 in neural progenitor cells in Xenopus laevis and mouse embryos. In Xenopus tadpole VEGF-C knockdowns and in mice lacking Vegfc, the proliferation of neural progenitors expressing VEGFR-3 was severely reduced, in the absence of intracerebral blood vessel defects. In addition, Vegfc-deficient mouse embryos showed a selective loss of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in the embryonic optic nerve. In vitro, VEGF-C stimulated the proliferation of OPCs expressing VEGFR-3 and nestin-positive ventricular neural cells. VEGF-C thus has a new, evolutionary conserved function as a growth factor selectively required by neural progenitor cells expressing its receptor VEGFR-3.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Barbara Le Bras, Jul 07, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
255 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is usually fatal within 2-5 years. Unfortunately, the only treatment currently available is riluzole, which has limited efficacy. As a redress, there is an expanding literature focusing on other potential treatments. One such potential treatment option utilizes the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family, which includes factors that are primarily associated with angiogenesis but are now increasingly recognized to have neurotrophic effects. Reduced expression of a member of this family, VEGF-A, in mice results in neurodegeneration similar to that of ALS, while treatment of animal models of ALS with either VEGF-A gene therapy or VEGF-A protein has yielded positive therapeutic outcomes. These basic research findings raise the potential for a VEGF therapy to be translated to the clinic for the treatment of ALS. This review covers the VEGF family, its receptors and neurotrophic effects as well as VEGF therapy in animal models of ALS and advances towards clinical trials.
    Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2013.10.009 · 7.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: After stroke and brain injury, cortical gray matter recovery involves mechanisms of neurovascular matrix remodeling. In white matter, however, the mechanisms of recovery remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that oligodendrocytes secrete matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which accelerates the angiogenic response after white matter injury. In primary oligodendrocyte cultures, treatment with the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induced an upregulation and secretion of MMP-9. Conditioned media from IL-1β-stimulated oligodendrocytes significantly amplified matrigel tube formation in brain endothelial cells, indicating that MMP-9 from oligodendrocytes can promote angiogenesis in vitro. Next, we asked whether similar signals and substrates operate after white matter injury in vivo. Focal white matter injury and demyelination was induced in mice via stereotactic injection of lysophosphatidylcholine into corpus callosum. Western blot analysis showed that IL-1β expression was increased in damaged white matter. Immunostaining demonstrated MMP-9 signals in myelin-associated oligodendrocytic basic protein-positive oligodendrocytes. Treatment with an IL-1β-neutralizing antibody suppressed the MMP-9 response in oligodendrocytes. Finally, we confirmed that the broad spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 inhibited angiogenesis around the injury area in this white matter injury model. In gray matter, a neurovascular niche promotes cortical recovery after brain injury. Our study suggests that an analogous oligovascular niche may mediate recovery in white matter.
    Glia 05/2012; 60(6):875-81. DOI:10.1002/glia.22320 · 6.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Originally identified as an angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) is now known to play multiple roles in the CNS, including the direct regulation of neuronal and astrocytic functions. Here, we ask whether VEGF-A can also have a novel role in white matter by modulating oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). OPCs were cultured from rat neonatal cortex. Expression of VEGF-receptor2/KDR/Flk-1 was confirmed with Western blot and immunostaining. VEGF-A did not affect proliferation or differentiation in OPC cultures, but VEGF-A promoted OPC migration in a concentration-dependent manner. Consistent with this migration phenotype, VEGF-A-treated OPCs showed reorganization of actin cytoskeleton in leading-edge processes. VEGF-A-induced migration and actin reorganization were inhibited by an anti-Flk-1 receptor-blocking antibody. Mechanistically, VEGF-A induced binding of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) with paxillin. The FAK inhibitor PF573228 reduced VEGF-A-induced OPC migration. VEGF-A signaling also evoked a transient rise in reactive oxygen species (ROS), and OPC migration was increased when antioxidants were removed from the culture media. Our findings demonstrate that VEGF-A can induce OPC migration via an ROS- and FAK-dependent mechanism, and suggest a novel role for VEGF-A in white-matter maintenance and homeostasis.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 07/2011; 31(29):10666-70. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1944-11.2011 · 6.75 Impact Factor