Astrocyte control of fetal cortical neuron glutathione homeostasis: up-regulation by ethanol.

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA.
Journal of Neurochemistry (Impact Factor: 4.24). 03/2006; 96(5):1289-300. DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2006.03674.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ethanol increases apoptotic neuron death in the developing brain and at least part of this may be mediated by oxidative stress. In cultured fetal rat cortical neurons, Ethanol increases levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within minutes of exposure and reduces total cellular glutathione (GSH) shortly thereafter. This is followed by onset of apoptotic cell death. These responses to Ethanol can be blocked by elevating neuron GSH with N-acetylcysteine or by co-culturing neurons with neonatal cortical astrocytes. We describe here mechanisms by which the astrocyte-neuron gamma-glutamyl cycle is up-regulated by Ethanol, enhancing control of neuron GSH in response to the pro-oxidant, Ethanol. Up to 6 days of Ethanol exposure had no consistent effects on activities of gamma-glutamyl cysteine ligase or glutathione synthetase, and GSH content remained unchanged (p < 0.05). However, glutathione reductase was increased with 1 and 2 day Ethanol exposures, 25% and 39% for 2.5 and 4.0 mg/mL Ethanol by 1 day, and 11% and 16% for 2.5 and 4.0 mg/mL at 2 days, respectively (p < 0.05). A 24 h exposure to 4.0 mg/mL Ethanol increased GSH efflux from astrocyte up to 517% (p < 0.05). Ethanol increased both gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase expression and activity on astrocyte within 24 h of exposure (40%, p = 0.05 with 4.0 mg/mL) and this continued for at least 4 days of Ethanol treatment. Aminopeptidase N activity on neurons increased by 62% and 55% within 1 h of Ethanol for 2.5 and 4.0 mg/mL concentration, respectively (p < 0.05), remaining elevated for 24 h of treatment. Thus, there are at least three key points of the gamma-glutamyl cycle that are up-regulated by Ethanol, the net effect being to enhance neuron GSH homeostasis, thereby protecting neurons from Ethanol-mediated oxidative stress and apoptotic death.


Available from: Lora Talley Watts, Nov 19, 2014
1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study investigated effect of extract containing quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside from Rumex Aquaticus Herba (ECQ) against chronic gastritis in rats. To produce chronic gastritis, the animals received a daily intra-gastric administration of 0.1 ml of 0.15% iodoacetamide (IA) solution for 7 days. Daily exposure of the gastric mucosa to IA induced both gastric lesions and significant reductions of body weight and food and water intake. These reductions recovered with treatment with ECQ for 7 days. ECQ significantly inhibited the elevation of the malondialdehyde levels and myeloperoxidase activity, which were used as indices of lipid peroxidation and neutrophil infiltration. ECQ recovered the level of glutathione, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), and expression of SOD-2. The increased levels of total NO concentration and iNOS expression in the IA-induced chronic gastritis were significantly reduced by treatment with ECQ. These results suggest that the ECQ has a therapeutic effect on chronic gastritis in rats by inhibitory actions on neutrophil infiltration, lipid peroxidation and various steps of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 10/2013; 17(5):469-77. DOI:10.4196/kjpp.2013.17.5.469 · 1.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Glutathione (GSH), a major cellular antioxidant protects cells against oxidative stress injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NFE2L2/Nrf2) is a redox sensitive master regulator of battery of antioxidant enzymes including those involved in GSH antioxidant machinery. Earlier we reported that ethanol (ETOH) elicits apoptotic death of primary cortical neurons (PCNs) which in partly due to depletion of intracellular GSH levels. Further a recent report from our laboratory illustrated that ETOH exacerbated the dysregulation of GSH and caspase mediated cell death of cortical neurons that are compromised in Nrf2 machinery (Narasimhan et al., 2011). In various experimental models of neurodegeneration, neuronal antioxidant defenses mainly GSH has been shown to be supported by astrocytes. We therefore sought to determine whether astrocytes can render protection to neurons against ETOH toxicity, particularly when the function of Nrf2 is compromised in neurons. The experimental model consisted of co-culturing primary cortical astrocytes (PCA) with Nrf2 downregulated PCNs that were exposed with 4 mg/mL ETOH for 24 h. Monochlorobimane (MCB) staining followed by FACS analysis showed that astrocytes blocked ETOH induced GSH decrement in Nrf2-silenced neurons as opposed to exaggerated GSH depletion in Nrf2 downregulated PCNs alone. Similarly, the heightened activation of caspase 3/7 observed in Nrf2-compromised neurons was attenuated when co-cultured with astrocytes as measured by luminescence based caspase Glo assay. Furthermore, annexin-V-FITC staining followed by FACS analysis revealed that Nrf2 depleted neurons showed resistance to ETOH induced neuronal apoptosis when co-cultured with astrocytes. Thus, the current study identifies ETOH induced dysregulation of GSH and associated apoptotic events observed in Nrf2-depleted neurons can be blocked by astrocytes. Further our results suggest that this neuroprotective effect of astrocyte despite dysfunctional Nrf2 system in neurons could be compensated by astrocytic GSH supply.
    Open Journal of Apoptosis 07/2012; 1(2). DOI:10.4236/ojapo.2012.12002
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: During the last 20 years, new and exciting roles for glial cells in brain development have been described. Moreover, several recent studies implicated glial cells in the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental disorders including Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Rett Syndrome, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Abnormalities in glial cell development and proliferation and increased glial cell apoptosis contribute to the adverse effects of ethanol on the developing brain and it is becoming apparent that the effects of fetal alcohol are due, at least in part, to effects on glial cells affecting their ability to modulate neuronal development and function. The three major classes of glial cells, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia as well as their precursors are affected by ethanol during brain development. Alterations in glial cell functions by ethanol dramatically affect neuronal development, survival, and function and ultimately impair the development of the proper brain architecture and connectivity. For instance, ethanol inhibits astrocyte-mediated neuritogenesis and oligodendrocyte development, survival and myelination; furthermore, ethanol induces microglia activation and oxidative stress leading to the exacerbation of ethanol-induced neuronal cell death. This review article describes the most significant recent findings pertaining the effects of ethanol on glial cells and their significance in the pathophysiology of FASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders.
    Frontiers in Pediatrics 11/2014; 2:123. DOI:10.3389/fped.2014.00123