Symptomatic hyperlactataemia and lactic acidosis in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Tygerberg Hospital and Stellenbosch University.
South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde (Impact Factor: 1.71). 01/2006; 95(12):929-30.
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:: Stavudine is a commonly used drug in paediatric antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens. Due to toxicity concerns, however, the drug abacavir has replaced stavudine in first-line paediatric regimens in many countries. We describe the frequency of stavudine toxicity in children receiving ART at a treatment clinic in Soweto, South Africa. METHODS:: Data on patient characteristics and outcomes of ART were collected from a cohort of 2222 HIV-infected children initiating ART between 2004 and 2008 when stavudine-containing regimens were routinely recommended. At several time-points after treatment initiation, we estimate the proportion of children where an attending clinician discontinued stavudine due to lipodystrophy, pancreatitis, lactic acidosis or peripheral neuropathy. Factors associated with stavudine-related toxicities were identified. RESULTS:: At ART initiation, most children had advanced disease. The majority initiated an efavirenz/lamivudine/stavudine regimen (n = 1422), and 76% of children remained on their initial ART regimen after a median 19.9 months of ART. Replacement of stavudine due to drug toxicity occurred at a rate of 28.8 per 1000 child years on treatment (95% confidence interval = 23.6-35.2). Rates of toxicity increased with treatment duration (in their first year of ART stavudine was replaced in 0.5% of children, but after three years stavudine had been changed to abacavir in 12.6% of children). Toxicity was commoner in older children and in girls. Lipodystrophy accounted for 87 of 96 toxic events. CONCLUSIONS:: Stavudine-associated toxicity resulting in single-drug substitution was uncommon in this cohort, though its frequency increased steadily with ART duration, especially with lipodystrophy. Where drug options are limited, stavudine remains a relatively safe and effective option for children.
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic acidosis (MA) is a frequent and serious complication in HIV-infected patients. The aim of the study is to compare patients with and without MA associated with HIV. Patients were retrospectively studied involving all HIV-infected patients with blood gas analysis performed during hospital stay admitted to a single hospital between April 2004 and July 2006. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 10.0 for Windows. Included in the study were 159 HIV patients, 72 cases (45.3%) with MA and 87 cases (54.7%) without. The comparison of both groups showed a mean arterial pH of 7.24 +/- 0.08 vs. 7.44 +/- 0.05, HCO(3) 12 +/- 5.7 vs. 21 +/- 5.1 mEq/L, serum urea 81 +/- 68 mg/dL vs. 39 +/- 46 mg/dL and serum creatinine 2.7 +/- 2.6 mg/dL vs. 1.2 +/- 1.9 mg/dL in MA-HIV and non-MA-HIV, respectively (p <0.05). Antiretroviral therapy (ART) was being administered to 38 subjects (52.8%) in MA-HIV group and 45 (51.7%) in non-MA-HIV group (p = 0.57). There was no association between the use of ART and MA. Mortality was higher in patients with acidosis (52.7 vs. 17.2%, p <0.0001). In the present study, MA was associated with acute kidney injury and increased mortality. There was no association between the use of ART and MA.
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