Protein O-fucosyltransferase 2 adds O-fucose to thrombospondin type 1 repeats.
ABSTRACT O-Fucose is an unusual form of glycosylation found on epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats and thrombospondin type 1 repeats (TSRs) in many secreted and transmembrane proteins. Recently O-fucose on EGF repeats was shown to play important roles in Notch signaling. In contrast, physiological roles for O-fucose on TSRs are unknown. In the accompanying paper (Luo, Y., Nita-Lazar, A., and Haltiwanger, R. S. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 9385-9392), we demonstrated that an enzyme distinct from protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 adds O-fucose to TSRs. A known homologue of O-fucosyltransferase 1 is putative protein O-fucosyltransferase 2. The cDNA sequence encoding O-fucosyltransferase 2 was originally identified during a data base search for fucosyltransferases in Drosophila. Like O-fucosyltransferase 1, O-fucosyltransferase 2 is conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans. Although O-fucosyltransferase 2 was assumed to be another protein O-fucosyltransferase, no biochemical characterization existed supporting this contention. Here we show that RNAi-mediated reduction of the O-fucosyltransferase 2 message significantly decreased TSR-specific O-fucosyltransferase activity in Drosophila S2 cells. We also found that O-fucosyltransferase 2 is predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum compartment of these cells. Furthermore, we expressed recombinant Drosophila O-fucosyltransferase 2 and showed that it O-fucosylates TSRs but not EGF repeats in vitro. These results demonstrate that O-fucosyltransferase 2 is in fact a TSR-specific O-fucosyltransferase.
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ABSTRACT: N-Glycosylation has long been linked to protein folding and quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Recent work has shown that O-linked glycosylation and the corresponding glycosyltransferases also participate in this important function. Notably, Protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Ofut1/Pofut1), a soluble, ER localized enzyme that fucosylates Epidermal Growth Factor-like (EGF) repeats, functions as a chaperone involved in the proper localization of the Notch receptor in certain contexts. Pofut2, a related enzyme that modifies Thrombospondin type I repeats (TSRs), has also been hypothesized to play a role in the folding and quality control of TSR-containing proteins. Both enzymes only modify fully folded substrates suggesting that they are able to distinguish between folded and unfolded structures. Pofuts have known physiological relevance and are conserved across metazoans. Though consensus sequences for O-fucosylation have been established and structures of both Pofuts have been studied, the mechanism of how they participate in protein folding is not known. This article discusses past and recent advances made in novel roles for these protein O-glycosyltransferases.Glycoconjugate Journal 09/2014; 31(6-7). · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The past 25 years have seen significant advances in understanding the diversity and functions of glycoprotein glycans in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetic screens have captured mutations that reveal important biological activities modulated by glycans, including protein folding and trafficking, as well as cell signaling, tissue morphogenesis, fertility, and viability. Many of these glycan functions have parallels in vertebrate development and disease, providing increasing opportunities to dissect pathologic mechanisms using Drosophila genetics. Advances in the sensitivity of structural analytic techniques have allowed the glycan profiles of wild-type and mutant tissues to be assessed, revealing novel glycan structures that may be functionally analogous to vertebrate glycans. This review describes a selected set of recent advances in understanding the functions of N-linked and O-linked (non-glycosaminoglycan) glycoprotein glycans in Drosophila with emphasis on their relatedness to vertebrate organisms.Glycoconjugate Journal 01/2012; 30(1). · 1.95 Impact Factor