Article

Specific requirement for Bax, not Bak, in Myc-induced apoptosis and tumor suppression in vivo

Department of Cellular and Molecular Pharmacology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 05/2006; 281(16):10890-5. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M513655200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Bax and Bak comprise the mitochondrial gateway for apoptosis induced by diverse stimuli. Loss of both bax and bak is necessary to block cell death induced by such stimuli, indicating a great degree of functional overlap between Bax and Bak. Apoptosis is the major intrinsic pathway that limits the oncogenic potential of Myc. Using a switchable mouse model of Myc-induced apoptosis in pancreatic beta cells, we have shown that Myc induces apoptosis in vivo exclusively through Bax but not Bak. Furthermore, blockade of Myc-induced apoptosis by the inactivation of Bax, but not Bak, eliminates all restraints to the oncogenic potential of Myc, allowing the rapid and synchronous progression of invasive, angiogenic tumors.

0 Followers
 · 
102 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION Des réponses thérapeutiques variables aux glucocorticoïdes (GCs) sont observées parmi les patients atteints de la leucémie lymphoblastique aiguë (LLA). Les protéines Bax et Bim ont déjà montré un rôle important dans l’apoptose des cellules leucémiques. L’expression de Bax était plus basse chez les patients leucémiques résistants au médicament, de même une sensibilité diminuée aux GCs a été associée avec une expression réduite de Bim. La différence dans l’expression pourrait être due à des polymorphismes présents dans ces gènes et donc être associés avec la résistance aux GCs. MÉTHODE Dix-huit polymorphismes en régions régulatrices, 2 polymorphismes exoniques et 7 polymorphismes en région 3’UTR de ces gènes ont été analysés chez les témoins (n=50) et ont permis de déterminer un nombre minimal de polymorphismes suffisants pour définir les haplotypes (tagSNPs). Ces 8 polymorphismes ont ensuite été génotypés chez 286 enfants atteints de la LLA et ont été testés pour l’issue de la maladie par l’analyse de survie. RÉSULTATS Une survie sans évènement et une survie sans rechute diminuées ont été observées pour l’haplotype 3 (p=0,03 et p=0,02). Une survie globale diminuée a été associée avec l’homozygotie pour l’allèle exonique T298C>T (p=0,03), de même que pour les haplotypes 1 et 4 (p=0,04 et p=0,02) du gène Bim. CONCLUSION Les polymorphismes ont été associés avec une survie diminuée chez des enfants atteints de LLA. Il reste à tester d’autres polymorphismes présents dans ces deux gènes ainsi qu’à définir leurs fonctions afin de comprendre leurs rôles dans la réponse aux GCs. INTRODUCTION Variable therapeutic responses to glucocorticoids (GCs) are observed for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Proteins Bax and Bim have already shown to play a major role in mediating GC-induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. Bax expression was lower in drug-resistant leukemia samples; likewise lower sensitivity to GC was associated with reduced Bim expression. The difference in the expression can be due to polymorphisms in these genes and therefore associated to GC resistance. METHOD Eighteen polymorphisms in the regulatory region, two exonic polymorphisms and seven polymorphisms in 3’UTR of these genes were analysed in controls (n=50) and have permitted to determine a minimal number of polymorphisms sufficient to define haplotypes (tagSNPs). These 8 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were then genotyped in 286 LLA children and were tested for disease outcome by survival analysis. RESULTS A diminished event free survival and a diminished relapse free survival were observed for haplotype 3 (p=0,03 and p=0,02). A diminished overall survival was associated with the exonic T298C>T allele (p=0,03) and with haplotypes 1 and 4 (p=004 and p=0,02) of Bim gene. CONCLUSION Bax and Bim were associated with a diminished survival in LLA children. We still have to test other polymorphisms located in these genes and to define their functions in order to understand their roles in GC response.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The authors show that the KSR 1 delivers both high performance and ease of use. KSR 1 performance results on standard benchmark suites, including the NAS parallel benchmarks, are presented and compared with those of other computers to demonstrate its high delivered performance. It is then shown, through a simple example, how the KSR 1's ALLCACHE memory architecture allows an incremental approach to parallel programming which makes it easy to use. This incremental approach is demonstrated using a real technical application in the field of computational chemistry
    Compcon Spring '93, Digest of Papers.; 03/1993
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cyclin E/Cdk2 is a critical regulator of cell cycle progression from G(1) to S in mammalian cells and has an established role in oncogenesis. Here we examined the role of deregulated cyclin E expression in apoptosis. The levels of p50-cyclin E initially increased, and this was followed by a decrease starting at 8 h after treatment with genotoxic stress agents, such as ionizing radiation. This pattern was mirrored by the cyclin E-Cdk2-associated kinase activity and a time-dependent expression of a novel p18-cyclin E. p18-cyclin E was induced during apoptosis triggered by multiple genotoxic stress agents in all hematopoietic tumor cell lines we have examined. The p18-cyclin E expression was prevented by Bcl-2 overexpression and by the general caspase and specific caspase 3 pharmacologic inhibitors zVAD-fluoromethyl ketone (zVAD-fmk) and N-acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde (DEVD-CHO), indicating that it was linked to apoptosis. A p18-cyclin E(276-395) (where cyclin E(276-395) is the cyclin E fragment containing residues 276 to 395) was reconstituted in vitro, with mutagenesis experiments, indicating that the caspase-dependent cleavage was at amino acid residues 272 to 275. Immunoprecipitation analyses of the ectopically expressed cyclin E(1-275), cyclin E(276-395) deletion mutants, and native p50-cyclin E demonstrated that caspase-mediated cyclin E cleavage eliminated interaction with Cdk2 and therefore inactivated the associated kinase activity. Overexpression of cyclin E(276-395), but not of several other cyclin E mutants, specifically induced phosphatidylserine exposure and caspase activation in a dose-dependent manner, which were inhibited in Bcl-2-overexpressing cells or in the presence of zVAD-fmk. Apoptosis and generation of p18-cyclin E were significantly inhibited by overexpressing the cleavage-resistant cyclin E mutant, indicating a functional role for caspase-dependent proteolysis of cyclin E for apoptosis of hematopoietic tumor cells.
    Molecular and Cellular Biology 05/2002; 22(7):2398-409. DOI:10.1128/MCB.22.7.2398-2409.2002 · 5.04 Impact Factor