[West Nile virus infection: serological investigation among horses in France and in Africa].
ABSTRACT This study was carried out in 2003 to detected serological evidence of West Nile virus infection in 190 Army horses kept nearby French troops stationed in Southeast France and in Africa (Chad, Côte d'Ivoire and Senegal). Both IgG and IgM antibodies were searched for using an ELISA assay. Specifiity of IgG antibodies was determined by western blot and plaque reduction seroneutraization. Finding showed that 79% of the Army horses (n=96) tested in Africa presented specific IgG antibodies. All horses that were seropositive for IgG were seronegative for IgM. None of the Army horses (n=94) tested in the Southeast France were seropositive for West Nile virus. This study indicates that West Nile virus has circulated in all three African countries but not recently. It also underscores the value of western blotting as a rapid, specific confirmation technique that could eliminate the need to use plaque reduction seroneutralization.
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ABSTRACT: In the last 30 years several cases of West Nile (WN) virus infection were reported in horses and humans in Europe and in the Mediterranean Basin. Most of them were determined by strains of the Lineage 1 included in the European Mediterranean/Kenyan cluster. Strains of this cluster are characterised by a moderate pathogenicity for horses and humans and limited or no pathogenicity for birds. In recent years, however, WN cases determined by strains grouped in the Israeli/American cluster of Lineage 1 or in the lineage 2 have been reported in Hungary and Austria. The role of migrating birds in introducing new viruses to Europe has been often demonstrated. The migratory birds, which may be infected in their African wintering places, carry the virus northward to European sites during spring migrations. In the past, the virus introduction determined occasional cases of WN. In the recent years, new epidemiological scenarios are developing. In few occasions it has been evidenced the capability of WNV strains of overwintering by using local birds and mosquitoes. Species of Culex amongst mosquitoes and magpies (Pica pica), carrion crows (Corvus corone) and rock pigeons (Columba livia) amongst resident birds are the most probable species involved in this hypothetical WND endemic cycle.The Open Virology Journal 01/2010; 4:29-37.
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ABSTRACT: In 2005, a serological study was carried out on horses in five ecologically contrasted zones of the Senegal River basin (Senegal) to assess West Nile virus (WNV) transmission and investigate underlying environmental risk factors. In each study zone, horses were randomly selected and blood samples taken. A land-cover map of the five study areas was built using two satellite ETM+ images. Blood samples were screened by ELISA for anti-WNV IgM and IgG and positive samples were confirmed by seroneutralization. Environmental data were analysed using a principal components analysis. The overall IgG seroprevalence rate was 85% (n=367; 95% CI 0.81-0.89). The proximity to sea water, flooded banks and salted mudflats were identified as protective factors. These environmental components are unfavourable to the presence of Culex mosquitoes suggesting that in Senegal, the distribution of the vector species is more limiting for WNV transmission than for the hosts' distribution.Epidemiology and Infection 02/2010; 138(11):1601-9. · 2.87 Impact Factor