Cyclooxygenase-2 induction and prostacyclin release by protease-activated receptors in endothelial cells require cooperation between mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-kappaB pathways.

Department of Veterinary Basic Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Royal College Street, London NW1 0TU, United Kingdom.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 05/2006; 281(17):11792-804. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M509292200
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The functional significance of protease-activated receptors (PARs) in endothelial cells is largely undefined, and the intracellular consequences of their activation are poorly understood. Here, we show that the serine protease thrombin, a PAR-1-selective peptide (TFLLRN), and SLIGKV (PAR-2-selective peptide) induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and mRNA expression in human endothelial cells without modifying COX-1 expression. COX-2 induction was accompanied by sustained production of 6-keto-PGF1alpha, the stable hydrolysis product of prostacyclin, and this was inhibited by indomethacin and the COX-2-selective inhibitor NS398. PAR-1 and PAR-2 stimulation rapidly activated both ERK1/2 and p38MAPK, and pharmacological blockade of MEK with either PD98059 or U0126 or of p38MAPK by SB203580 or SB202190 strongly inhibited thrombin- and SLIGKV-induced COX-2 expression and 6-keto-PGF1alpha formation. Thrombin and peptide agonists of PAR-1 and PAR-2 increased luciferase activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells infected with an NF-kappaB-dependent luciferase reporter adenovirus, and this, as well as PAR-induced 6-keto-PGF1alpha synthesis, was inhibited by co-infection with adenovirus encoding wild-type or mutated (Y42F) IkappaBalpha. Thrombin- and SLIGKV-induced COX-2 expression and 6-keto-PGF1alpha generation were markedly attenuated by the NF-kappaB inhibitor PG490 and partially inhibited by the proteasome pathway inhibitor MG-132. Activation of PAR-1 or PAR-2 promoted nuclear translocation and phosphorylation of p65-NF-kappaB, and thrombin-induced but not PAR-2-induced p65-NF-kappaB phosphorylation was reduced by inhibition of MEK or p38MAPK. Activation of PAR-4 by AYPGKF increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38MAPK without modifying NF-kappaB activation or COX-2 induction. Our data show that PAR-1 and PAR-2, but not PAR-4, are coupled with COX-2 expression and sustained endothelial production of vasculoprotective prostacyclin by mechanisms that depend on ERK1/2, p38MAPK, and IkappaBalpha-dependent NF-kappaB activation.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Acute and chronic respiratory diseases are associated with abnormal coagulation regulation and fibrolysis. However, the detailed mechanism by which coagulation regulation and fibrolysis affect the occurrence and development of lung diseases remain to be elucidated. Protease activated receptor-1 (PAR-1), a major high-affinity thrombin receptor, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor, are involved in cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation. We have investigated the potential mechanism of thrombin-induced fibroblast proliferation and roles of PAR-1 and NF-κB signalling in this process. The effect of thrombin on proliferation of human pulmonary fibroblasts (HPF) was assessed by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assay. The expression of PAR1 and NF-κB subunit p65 protein was detected by Western blot. Nuclear translocation of p65 was examined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. We show that thrombin significantly increased proliferation of HPF as determined by induction of BrdU-positive incorporation ratio. Induced PAR1 protein expression was also seen in HPF cells treated with thrombin. However, thrombin had no significant effect on expression and translocation of NF-κB p65 in HPF cells. The results indicate that, by increasing protein expression and interacting with PAR1, thrombin promotes HPF proliferation. NF-κB signalling appears to play no role in this process.
    Cell Biology International 02/2014; · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are obtained from the culture of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (hPBMNC) fractions and are characterised by high proliferative and pro-vasculogenic potential, which makes them of great interest for cell therapy. Here, we describe the detection of protease-activated receptor (PAR) 1 and 2 amongst the surface proteins expressed in ECFCs. Both receptors are functionally coupled to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1 and 2, which become activated and phosphorylated in response to selective PAR1- or PAR2-activating peptides. Specific stimulation of PAR1, but not PAR2, significantly inhibits capillary-like tube formation by ECFCs in vitro, suggesting that tubulogenesis is negatively regulated by proteases able to stimulate PAR1 (e.g. thrombin). The activation of ERKs is not involved in the regulation of tubulogenesis in vitro, as suggested by use of the MEK inhibitor PD98059 and by the fact that PAR2 stimulation activates ERKs without affecting capillary tube formation. Both qPCR and immunoblotting showed a significant downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor 2 (VEGFR2) in response to PAR1 stimulation. Moreover, the addition of VEGF (50-100 ng/ml) but not basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) (25-100 ng/ml) rescued tube formation by ECFCs treated with PAR1-activating peptide. Therefore, we propose that reduction of VEGF responsiveness resulting from down-regulation of VEGFR2 is underlying the anti-tubulogenic effect of PAR1 activation. Although the role of PAR2 remains elusive, this study sheds new light on the regulation of the vasculogenic activity of ECFCs and suggests a potential link between adult vasculogenesis and the coagulation cascade.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(10):e109375. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a proinflammatory mediator, is elevated in the regions of several brain inflammatory disorders, implying that ET-1 may contribute to inflammatory responses. The deleterious effects of ET-1 on brain endothelial cells may aggravate brain inflammation mediated through the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) system. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying ET-1-induced COX-2 expression in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells (bEnd.3 cells) remain unclear. Herein, we investigated the effects of Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases on ET-1-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 release in bEnd.3 cells. The data obtained with Western blotting, reverse transcription PCR, and intracellular Ca(2+) analyses showed that ET-1-induced COX-2 expression was mediated through phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase C (PC-PLC)/Ca(2+)-dependent activation of protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-α) and calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) cascades. Next, we demonstrated that ET-1 stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) increase, phoshorylation of PKC-α, CaMKII, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2) and then activated the activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2)/activator protein 1 (AP-1) via Gq/i protein-coupled ETB receptors. Moreover, the data of chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter reporter assay demonstrated that the activated ATF2/AP-1 and p300 bound to its corresponding binding sites within COX-2 promoter, thereby turning on COX-2 gene transcription. Finally, upregulation of COX-2 by ET-1 promoted PGE2 biosynthesis and release in these cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in bEnd.3 cells, Ca(2+)-dependent PKC-α and CaMKII linking to MAPKs, ATF2/AP-1, and p300 cascade is essential for ET-1-induced COX-2 upregulation. Understanding the mechanisms of COX-2/PGE2 system upregulated by ET-1 on brain microvascular endothelial cells may provide rational therapeutic interventions for brain injury and inflammatory diseases.
    Molecular Neurobiology 11/2013; · 5.29 Impact Factor


Available from
May 22, 2014