Cys-113 and Cys-422 form a high affinity metalloid binding site in the ArsA ATPase
ABSTRACT The arsRDABC operon of Escherichia coli plasmid R773 encodes the ArsAB extrusion pump for the trivalent metalloids As(III) and Sb(III). ArsA, the catalytic subunit has two homologous halves, A1 and A2. Each half has a consensus signal transduction domain that physically connects the nucleotide-binding domain to the metalloid-binding domain. The relation between metalloid binding by ArsA and transport through ArsB is unclear. In this study, direct metalloid binding to ArsA was examined. The results show that ArsA binds a single Sb(III) with high affinity only in the presence of Mg(2+)-nucleotide. Mutation of the codons for Cys-113 and Cys-422 eliminated Sb(III) binding to purified ArsA. C113A/C422A ArsA has basal ATPase activity similar to that of the wild type but lacks metalloid-stimulated activity. Accumulation of metalloid was assayed in intact cells, where reduced uptake results from active extrusion by the ArsAB pump. Cells expressing the arsA(C113A/C422A)B genes had an intermediate level of metalloid resistance and accumulation between those expressing only arsB alone and those expressing wild type arsAB genes. The results indicate that, whereas metalloid stimulation of ArsA activity enhances the ability of the pump to reduce the intracellular concentration of metalloid, high affinity binding of metalloid by ArsA is not obligatory for transport or resistance. Yet, in mixed populations of cells bearing either arsAB or arsA(C113A/C422A)B growing in subtoxic concentrations of arsenite, cells bearing wild type arsAB replaced cells with mutant arsA(C113A/C422A)B in less than 1 week, showing that the metalloid binding site confers an evolutionary advantage.
SourceAvailable from: Ishwar Chandra Yadav
Dataset: Rev Env Contamin Toxicol 224
Article: Arsenic Binding to ProteinsChemical Reviews 06/2013; 113(10). DOI:10.1021/cr300015c · 45.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ArsA ATPase is the catalytic subunit of the ArsAB As(III) efflux pump. It receives trivalent As(III) from the intracellular metallochaperone ArsD. The interaction of ArsA and ArsD allows for resistance to As(III) at environmental concentrations. A quadruple mutant in the arsD gene encoding a K2A/K37A/K62A/K104A ArsD is unable to interact with ArsA. An error-prone mutagenesis approach was used to generate random mutations in the arsA gene that restored interaction with the quadruple arsD mutant in yeast two-hybrid assays. A number of arsA genes with multiple mutations were isolated. These were analyzed in more detail by separation into single arsA mutants. Three such mutants encoding Q56R, F120I and D137V ArsA were able to restore interaction with the quadruple ArsD mutant in yeast two-hybrid assays. Each of the three single ArsA mutants also interacted with wild type ArsD. Only the Q56R ArsA derivative exhibited significant metalloid-stimulated ATPase activity in vitro. Purified Q56R ArsA was stimulated by wild type ArsD and to a lesser degree by the quadruple ArsD derivative. The F120I and D137V ArsAs did not show metalloid-stimulated ATPase activity. Structural models generated by in silico docking suggest that an electrostatic interface favors reversible interaction between ArsA and ArsD. We predict that mutations in ArsA propagate changes in hydrogen bonding and salt bridges to the ArsA-ArsD interface that affect their interactions.BioMetals 09/2014; 27(6). DOI:10.1007/s10534-014-9788-6 · 2.69 Impact Factor