Cys-113 and Cys-422 Form a High Affinity Metalloid Binding Site in the ArsA ATPase
ABSTRACT The arsRDABC operon of Escherichia coli plasmid R773 encodes the ArsAB extrusion pump for the trivalent metalloids As(III) and Sb(III). ArsA, the catalytic subunit has two homologous halves, A1 and A2. Each half has a consensus signal transduction domain that physically connects the nucleotide-binding domain to the metalloid-binding domain. The relation between metalloid binding by ArsA and transport through ArsB is unclear. In this study, direct metalloid binding to ArsA was examined. The results show that ArsA binds a single Sb(III) with high affinity only in the presence of Mg(2+)-nucleotide. Mutation of the codons for Cys-113 and Cys-422 eliminated Sb(III) binding to purified ArsA. C113A/C422A ArsA has basal ATPase activity similar to that of the wild type but lacks metalloid-stimulated activity. Accumulation of metalloid was assayed in intact cells, where reduced uptake results from active extrusion by the ArsAB pump. Cells expressing the arsA(C113A/C422A)B genes had an intermediate level of metalloid resistance and accumulation between those expressing only arsB alone and those expressing wild type arsAB genes. The results indicate that, whereas metalloid stimulation of ArsA activity enhances the ability of the pump to reduce the intracellular concentration of metalloid, high affinity binding of metalloid by ArsA is not obligatory for transport or resistance. Yet, in mixed populations of cells bearing either arsAB or arsA(C113A/C422A)B growing in subtoxic concentrations of arsenite, cells bearing wild type arsAB replaced cells with mutant arsA(C113A/C422A)B in less than 1 week, showing that the metalloid binding site confers an evolutionary advantage.
- SourceAvailable from: Walid S Maaty
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "The prediction of AioX being a solute-binding protein led us to compare AioX homologues to identify conserved cysteine residues because of their documented importance to AsIII interactions in AsIII-interactive proteins (Shi et al., 1994; Ruan et al., 2006; Lin et al., 2007). Of the four cysteines in AioX, only Cys108 is completely conserved across all AioX-like proteins (Fig. S2), suggesting it is an essential feature. "
ABSTRACT: Arsenic (As) is the most common toxic element in the environment, ranking first on the Superfund List of Hazardous Substances. Microbial redox transformations are the principal drivers of As chemical speciation, which in turn dictates As mobility and toxicity. Consequently, in order to manage or remediate environmental As, land managers need to understand how and why microorganisms react to As. Studies have demonstrated a two-component signal transduction system comprised of AioS (sensor kinase) and AioR (response regulator) is involved in regulating microbial AsIII oxidation, with the AsIII oxidase structural genes aioB and aioA being upregulated by AsIII. However, it is not known whether AsIII is first detected directly by AioS or by an intermediate. Herein we demonstrate the essential role of a periplasmic AsIII-binding protein encoded by aioX, which is upregulated by AsIII. An ΔaioX mutant is defective for upregulation of the aioBA genes and consequently AsIII oxidation. Purified AioX expressed without its TAT-type signal peptide behaves as a monomer (MW 32 kDa), and Western blots show AioX to be exclusively associated with the cytoplasmic membrane. AioX binds AsIII with a K(D) of 2.4 µM AsIII; however, mutating a conserved Cys108 to either alanine or serine resulted in lack of AsIII binding, lack of aioBA induction, and correlated with a negative AsIII oxidation phenotype. The discovery and characterization of AioX illustrates a novel AsIII sensing mechanism that appears to be used in a range of bacteria and also provides one of the first examples of a bacterial signal anchor protein.Environmental Microbiology 12/2011; 14(7):1624-34. DOI:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02672.x · 6.24 Impact Factor
- "A1 and A2 have consensus nucleotidebinding domains (NBDs) at their interface (Zhou et al. 2000). A high affinity metalloid binding domain (MBD) about 20 A ˚ from the NBDs binds As(III) or Sb(III) (Zhou et al. 2001, 2000) using conserved residues Cys113, Cys72 and Cys422 (Ruan et al. 2006). Nucleotide binding at the NBDs stimulates metalloid binding, and, reciprocally, metalloid binding brings A1 and A2 together, "
Article: The ArsD As(III) metallochaperone[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Arsenic, a toxic metalloid widely existing in the environment, causes a variety of health problems. The ars operon encoded by Escherichia coli plasmid R773 has arsD and arsA genes, where ArsA is an ATPase that is the catalytic subunit of the ArsAB As(III) extrusion pump, and ArsD is an arsenic chaperone for ArsA. ArsD transfers As(III) to ArsA and increases the affinity of ArsA for As(III), allowing resistance to environmental concentrations of arsenic. Cys12, Cys13 and Cys18 in ArsD form a three sulfur-coordinated As(III) binding site that is essential for metallochaperone activity. ATP hydrolysis by ArsA is required for transfer of As(III) from ArsD to ArsA, suggesting that transfer occurs with a conformation of ArsA that transiently forms during the catalytic cycle. The 1.4 Å x-ray crystal structure of ArsD shows a core of four β-strands flanked by four α-helices in a thioredoxin fold. Docking of ArsD with ArsA was modeled in silico. Independently ArsD mutants exhibiting either weaker or stronger interaction with ArsA were selected. The locations of the mutations mapped on the surface of ArsD are consistent with the docking model. The results suggest that the interface with ArsA involves one surface of α1 helix and metalloid binding site of ArsD.Biology of Metals 12/2010; 24(3):391-9. DOI:10.1007/s10534-010-9398-x · 2.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
- "Everyone located in different regions of the partial sequence. According to Bhattacharjee and Rosen (1996) and Ruan et al. (2006) spatial proximity between Cys 113, Cys 172, and Cys 422 in the metallocativate domain of the arsA ATPase, Cys 113, and Cys 422 form a high affinity metalloid binding site in the arsA ATPase (Table 1). The coupling ArsAB ATPase-binding cassette transport, binding affinities and association rate constants show that arsenic species change is comparatively insensitive to the location of residues within moderately stable α-helical structure (Fig.4). "
ABSTRACT: Biogeochemical cyclic activity of the ars (arsenic resistance system) operon is arsB influx/efflux encoded by the ecological of Pseudomonas putida. This suggests that studying arsenite-oxidizing bacteria may lead to a better understanding of molecular geomicrobiology, which can be applied to the bioremediation of arsenic-contaminated mines. This is the first report in which multiple arsB-binding mechanisms have been used on indigenous bacteria. In ArsB (strains OS-5; ABB83931; OS-19; ABB04282 and RW-28; ABB88574), there are ten putative enzyme, Histidine (His) 131, His 133, His 137, Arginine (Arg) 135, Arg 137, Arg 161, Trptohan (Trp) 142, Trp 164, Trp 166, and Trp 171, which are each located in different regions of the partial sequence. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transports, binding affinities and associating ratable constants show that As-binding is comparatively insensitive to the location of the residues within the moderately stable alpha-helical structure. The alpha-helical structures in ArsB-permease and anion permease arsB have been shown to import/export arsenic in P. putida. We proposed that arsB residues, His 131, His 133, His 137, Arg 135, Arg 137, Arg 161, Trp 142, Trp 164, Trp 166, and Trp 171 are required for arsenic binding and activation of arsA/arsB or arsAB. This arsB influx/efflux pum-ping is important, and the effect in arsenic species change and mobility in mine soil has got a significantly ecological role because it allows arsenic oxidizing/reducing bacteria to control biogeochemical cycle of abandoned mines.Journal of Environmental Sciences 02/2008; 20(11):1348-55. DOI:10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62232-9 · 1.92 Impact Factor