Psychiatric disorders certified on death certificates in an English population.
ABSTRACT Psychiatric disorders are sometimes certified on death certificates, but seldom selected as the underlying cause of death. The majority of deaths with a certified psychiatric cause are usually omitted from official mortality statistics, which are typically based on the underlying cause alone.
To report on death rates for psychiatric disorders, as certified on death certificates, including all mentioned causes as well as the underlying cause of death.
Analysis of database including all certified causes of death in 1979-1999, in three time periods defined by coding rule changes.
Statistics on the underlying cause of death grossly under-estimated certified psychiatric disorders. For example, in the first period of our study they missed 88% of deaths in which schizophrenia was a certified cause, 98% of affective psychosis, and 96% of depression. Over time, considering all certified causes, age-standardised death rates for schizophrenia declined, those for affective psychosis showed no change, and those for depression and dementia increased.
The decline in mortality rates for schizophrenia, and the increase for depression and dementia, may reflect real changes over time in disease prevalence at death, although other explanations are possible and are discussed.
SourceAvailable from: Anca Cristina Cismasu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A series of naturally occurring ferrihydrites sampled from an acid mine drainage environment were characterized and compared with synthetic 2-line ferrihydrite using high energy X-ray total scattering and pair distribution function analysis, Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), BET N2 surface area measurements, and chemical extractions in order to place constraints on their structural and physical properties as a function of composition. Overall, the short- and intermediate-range ordering of the natural samples is comparable to synthetic ferrihydrite. However, with increasing Al, Si, and organic matter contents, a decrease in particle size and an increase in structural disorder were observed. Silica is suspected to have a pronounced effect on the crystallinity of ferrihydrite as a result of its inhibitory effect on Fe polymerization and particle growth, and it is likely complexed at the surfaces of ferrihydrite nanoparticles. Aluminum, on the other hand may substitute for Fe3+ in natural ferrihydrite. Organic matter is pervasive and intimately associated with ferrihydrite aggregates, and its presence during ferrihydrite precipitation may have contributed to additional structural disorder. The increase in impurity content affects not only the particle size and structural order of ferrihydrite but may also have a significant effect on its surface reactivity.Comptes Rendus Geosciences 02/2011; 343(2):210-218. DOI:10.1016/j.crte.2010.11.001 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trends in mortality rates for schizophrenia using multiple causes of death (including contributory causes) coded on death certificates in the US resident population apparently have not been reported. Age-standardized rates for deaths per 100,000 in 1999-2010 at age 15+ years (and for 15-64 and 65+ years) with mention of schizophrenia were examined for the US resident population, including variation by age, gender, race (blacks/African Americans and whites) and region. Deaths at age 15+ years coded with schizophrenia as underlying cause were only 12 % of all deaths with mention of schizophrenia, for which the rate declined from 1.58 in 1999 (3,407 deaths) to 1.32 in 2010 (3,422 deaths) (percentage change or PC = -16 %). Declines were larger in females than males, in whites than blacks, and occurred in the Northeast, Midwest and South but not the West. The rate increased for age 15-64 years (PC = +28 %) (mainly in males), however, while declining for age 65+ years (PC = -35 %). For deaths at age 15-64 years with schizophrenia coded as other than the underlying cause, the largest continuous increase was for endocrine-metabolic diseases (predominantly diabetes mellitus) as underlying cause, with smaller increases in males for cardiovascular diseases, external causes and neoplasms. Trends in the US rate for deaths with mention of schizophrenia varied among the sociodemographic groups examined. The lack of decline for age 15-64 years requires further study especially with regard to mediators (e.g., obesity) of excess mortality in schizophrenia identified from cohort studies.Social Psychiatry 02/2014; 49(7). DOI:10.1007/s00127-014-0846-8 · 2.58 Impact Factor