Increased cerebral levels of Abeta(42) peptide, either as soluble or aggregated forms, are suggested to play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The identification of genetic defects in presenilins and beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) has led to the development of cellular and animal models that have helped in understanding aspects of the pathophysiology of the inherited early onset forms of AD. However, the majority of AD cases are sporadic with no clear or defined genetic basis. While genetic mutations are responsible for the accumulation of Abeta in early onset AD, the causative factors for accumulation of Abeta in the late onset AD forms are not known. This raises the possibility that Abeta accumulation in the absence of genetic mutations might result from abnormalities that indirectly affect Abeta production or its clearance. Currently, there is no consensus as to what are the mechanisms by which Abeta accumulates or as to which mechanisms underlie Abeta-induced neuronal death in AD. In this review, I will first describe the physiological role of endoplasmic reticulum in the cell and review some of the data supporting dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum as an early event leading to Abeta accumulation in familial AD. I will also discuss the possible role of oxidative stress and other factors as contributors in Abeta accumulation by reducing the clearance of Abeta from the endoplasmic reticulum. Finally, I will summarize data that show the endoplasmic reticulum stress as a mechanism underlying exogenous Abeta neurotoxicity.
"1.2. ER calcium homeostasis and crosstalk with mitochondria In the ER, the homeostasis of Ca 2+ is maintained due to the concerted action of Ca 2+ pumps that actively uptake Ca 2+ , Ca 2+ -binding proteins that allow the storage of Ca 2+ in the ER lumen and Ca 2+ channels that release Ca 2+ into the cytosol in response to several stimuli   . The Ca 2+ channels associated with the ER receptors for IP3 (IP3R) and ryanodine (RyR) are present at the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM), which is responsible for the communication between the ER and the mitochondria  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the principal organelle responsible for the proper folding/processing of nascent proteins and perturbed ER function leads to a state known as ER stress. Mammalian cells try to overcome ER stress through a set of protein signalling pathways and transcription factors termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, under unresolvable ER stress conditions, the UPR is hyperactivated inducing cell dysfunction and death. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients suggests that alterations in ER homeostasis might be implicated in the neurodegenerative events that characterize this disorder. This review discusses the involvement of ER stress in the pathogenesis of AD, focusing the processing and trafficking of the AD-related amyloid precursor protein (APP) during disease development. The potential role of ER as a therapeutic target in AD will also be debated.
"Accordingly, the ratio between Aβ efflux and influx in AD patients' brain is decreased compared to healthy subjects showing that Aβ clearance from the brain is compromised in the disease . Moreover, ER stress was demonstrated to increase Aβ production and subsequent accumulation . The accumulation of misfolded/ unfolded proteins in the ER is accompanied by alterations in ER Ca 2+ homeostasis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurovascular dysfunction arising from endothelial cell damage is an early pathogenic event that contributes to the neurodegenerative process occurring in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since the mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction are not fully elucidated, this study was aimed to explore the hypothesis that brain endothelial cell death is induced upon the sustained activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response by amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide, which deposits in the cerebral vessels in many AD patients and transgenic mice. Incubation of rat brain endothelial cells (RBE4 cell line) with Aβ1-40 increased the levels of several markers of ER stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR), in a time-dependent manner, and affected the Ca(2+) homeostasis due to the release of Ca(2+) from this intracellular store. Finally, Aβ1-40 was shown to activate both mitochondria-dependent and -independent apoptotic cell death pathways. Enhanced release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of the downstream caspase-9 were observed in cells treated with Aβ1-40 concomitantly with caspase-12 activation. Furthermore, Aβ1-40 activated the apoptosis effectors' caspase-3 and promoted the translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) to the nucleus demonstrating the involvement of caspase-dependent and -independent mechanisms during Aβ-induced endothelial cell death. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that ER stress plays a significant role in Aβ1-40-induced apoptotic cell death in brain endothelial cells suggesting that ER stress-targeted therapeutic strategies might be useful in AD to counteract vascular defects and ultimately neurodegeneration.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.08.007 · 4.66 Impact Factor
"The ER is an organelle of fundamental importance to cell functions as it is the Ca2+ storage site and where surface and secreted proteins are synthesized, folded and assembled before being transported. Mounting evidence indicates a role of ER stress in the pathophysiology of many diseases including AD –. ER dyshomeostasis triggers stress signaling by activating the unfolded protein response (UPR) . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide, accumulation of which is a culprit for Alzheimer's disease (AD), is derived from the initial cleavage of amyloid precursor protein by the aspartyl protease BACE1. Identification of cellular mechanisms that regulate BACE1 production is of high relevance to the search for potential disease-modifying therapies that inhibit BACE1 to reduce Aβ accumulation and AD progression. In the present study, we show that the cholesterol oxidation product 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OHC) increases BACE1 and Aβ levels in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. This increase in BACE1 involves a crosstalk between the two transcription factors NF-κB and the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker, the growth arrest and DNA damage induced gene-153 (gadd153, also called CHOP). We specifically show that 27-OHC induces a substantial increase in NF-κB binding to the BACE1 promoter and subsequent increase in BACE1 transcription and Aβ production. The NF-κB inhibitor, sc514, significantly attenuated the 27-OHC-induced increase in NF-κB-mediated BACE1 expression and Aβ genesis. We further show that the 27-OHC-induced NF-κB activation and increased NF-κB-mediated BACE1 expression is contingent on the increased activation of gadd153. Silencing gadd153 expression with siRNA alleviated the 27-OHC-induced increase in NF-κB activation, NF-κB binding to the BACE1 promoter, and subsequent increase in BACE1 transcription and Aβ production. We also show that increased levels of BACE1 in the triple transgenic mouse model for AD is preceded by gadd153 and NF-κB activation. In summary, our study demonstrates that gadd153 and NF-κB work in concert to regulate BACE1 expression. Agents that inhibit gadd153 activation and subsequent interaction with NF-κB might be promising targets to reduce BACE1 and Aβ overproduction and may ultimately serve as disease-modifying treatments for AD.
PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e70773. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0070773 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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