Increasing evidence suggests that stress signaling pathways emanating from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are important to the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Recent observations indicate that ER stress signaling participates in maintaining the ER homeostasis of pancreatic beta-cells. Either a high level of ER stress or defective ER stress signaling in beta-cells may cause an imbalance in ER homeostasis and lead to beta-cell apoptosis and autoimmune response. In addition, it has been suggested that ER stress attributes to insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to study the relationship between ER stress and diabetes in order to develop new therapeutic approaches to diabetes based on drugs that block the ER stress-mediated cell-death pathway and insulin resistance.
"Therefore, the splicing of XBP1 mRNA is a major event to mediate the UPR. Tunicamycin (TM) is an inducer of UPR and it was reported that TM induced severe ER stress, apparently with increased XBP1 splicing, and caused serious developmental defects in Xenopus. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inositol requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1) is highly conserved from yeasts to humans. Upon endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, IRE1 activates X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1) by unconventional splicing of XBP1 mRNA, which activates unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore ER homeostasis. In mice, IRE1α plays an essential role in extraembryonic tissues. However, its precise action during the early stage of development is unknown. In this study, the gain and loss-of-function analyses were used to investigate the function of Xenopus IRE1α (xIRE1α). The effects of xIRE1α during embryo development were detected with RT-PCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. ER stress was induced by tunicamycin. The apoptotic cells were measured by TUNNEL assays. Although both gain and loss of xIRE1α function had no significant effect on Xenopus embryogenesis, knockdown of xIRE1α could rescue tunicamycin-induced developmental defects and apoptosis. The finding indicates that xIRE1α is not required for embryogenesis but is required for tunicamycin-induced developmental defects and apoptosis in Xenopus laevis.
"The UPR has been implicated in a number of autoimmune disorders associated with vitiligo such as type I diabetes (Lipson et al., 2006). Similar to our proposed model for vitiligo, in diabetes, it has been suggested that exposure to environmental agents such as toxins may be involved in initiation of excessive ER stress in pancreatic β-cells, triggering an apoptotic cascade by the UPR that leads to autoimmunity (Fonseca et al., 2009; Lipson et al., 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitiligo is characterized by depigmented skin patches caused by loss of epidermal melanocytes. Oxidative stress may have a role in vitiligo onset, while autoimmunity contributes to disease progression. In this study, we sought to identify mechanisms that link disease triggers and spreading of lesions. A hallmark of melanocytes at the periphery of vitiligo lesions is dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We hypothesized that oxidative stress results in redox disruptions that extend to the ER, causing accumulation of misfolded peptides, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). We used 4-tertiary butyl phenol and monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone, known triggers of vitiligo. We show that expression of key UPR components, including the transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1), is increased following exposure of melanocytes to phenols. XBP1 activation increases production of immune mediators IL6 and IL8. Co-treatment with XBP1 inhibitors reduced IL6 and IL8 production induced by phenols, while overexpression of XBP1 alone increased their expression. Thus, melanocytes themselves produce cytokines associated with activation of an immune response following exposure to chemical triggers of vitiligo. These results expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying melanocyte loss in vitiligo and pathways linking environmental stressors and autoimmunity.
"ER stress and APOE have been independently associated with neurodegenerative diseases and atherosclerosis , , , . Also ER stress is related to the increased ATF4 expression as well as β-cell apoptosis and the subsequent development of diabetes , . Given the important role of ATF4 in ER stress responses, the control of APOE expression by ATF4 demonstrated in this study provides a plausible link between ER stress and APOE-mediated cellular function in disease processes. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) coding polymorphism modifies the risks of Alzheimer's disease, type 2 diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Aside from the coding variants, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the APOE promoter has also been shown to modify the risk of Alzheimer's disease.
In this study we investigate the genotype-function relationship of APOE promoter polymorphism at molecular level and at physiological level: i.e., in transcription control of the gene and in the risk of type 2 diabetes. In molecular studies, the effect of the APOE -491A/T (rs449647) polymorphism on gene transcription was accessed by dual-luciferase reporter gene assays. The -491 A to T substitution decreased the activity (p<0.05) of the cloned APOE promoter (-1017 to +406). Using the -501 to -481 nucleotide sequence of the APOE promoter as a 'bait' to screen the human brain cDNA library by yeast one-hybrid system yielded ATF4, an endoplasmic reticulum stress response gene, as one of the interacting factors. Electrophoretic-mobility-shift assays (EMSA) and chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP) analyses further substantiated the physical interaction between ATF4 and the APOE promoter. Over-expression of ATF4 stimulated APOE expression whereas siRNA against ATF4 suppressed the expression of the gene. However, interaction between APOE promoter and ATF4 was not -491A/T-specific. At physiological level, the genotype-function relationship of APOE promoter polymorphism was studied in type 2 diabetes. In 630 cases and 595 controls, three APOE promoter SNPs -491A/T, -219G/T (rs405509), and +113G/C (rs440446) were genotyped and tested for association with type 2 diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese. No SNP or haplotype association with type 2 diabetes was detected.
At molecular level, polymorphism -491A/T and ATF4 elicit independent control of APOE gene expression. At physiological level, no genotype-risk association was detected between the studied APOE promoter SNPs and type 2 diabetes in Hong Kong Chinese.
PLoS ONE 10/2011; 6(10):e24669. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0024669 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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