Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis and auto-immunity in diabetes.
ABSTRACT Increasing evidence suggests that stress signaling pathways emanating from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are important to the pathogenesis of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Recent observations indicate that ER stress signaling participates in maintaining the ER homeostasis of pancreatic beta-cells. Either a high level of ER stress or defective ER stress signaling in beta-cells may cause an imbalance in ER homeostasis and lead to beta-cell apoptosis and autoimmune response. In addition, it has been suggested that ER stress attributes to insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is necessary to study the relationship between ER stress and diabetes in order to develop new therapeutic approaches to diabetes based on drugs that block the ER stress-mediated cell-death pathway and insulin resistance.
- SourceAvailable from: Yoichi Oikawa[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Human fulminant type 1 diabetes (FT1D) is an extremely aggressive disease. The delay of proper diagnosis results in high mortality. However, the pathophysiology of this disease remains unclear. We took advantage of CD28-deficient NOD (CD28(-/-) NOD) mice, which have limited numbers of regulatory T cells and develop aggressive autoimmune diabetes, to create a FT1D model that mimicked the disease in humans. Young CD28(-/-) NOD mice were injected with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid to activate innate immunity in an effort to induce diabetes onset. In this model, innate immune cell activation precedes the onset of diabetes similar to ∼70% of FT1D patients. Eighty-three percent of CD28(-/-) NOD mice developed diabetes within 1-6 d after injection of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid. Moreover, T cells infiltrated the pancreatic exocrine tissue and destroyed α cells, an observation characteristic of human FT1D. We conclude that an FT1D-like phenotype can be induced in the background of autoimmune diabetes by a mimic of viral dsRNA, and this model is useful for understanding human FT1D.The Journal of Immunology 10/2011; 187(10):4947-53. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vitiligo is characterized by depigmented skin patches caused by loss of epidermal melanocytes. Oxidative stress may have a role in vitiligo onset, while autoimmunity contributes to disease progression. In this study, we sought to identify mechanisms that link disease triggers and spreading of lesions. A hallmark of melanocytes at the periphery of vitiligo lesions is dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We hypothesized that oxidative stress results in redox disruptions that extend to the ER, causing accumulation of misfolded peptides, which activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). We used 4-tertiary butyl phenol and monobenzyl ether of hydroquinone, known triggers of vitiligo. We show that expression of key UPR components, including the transcription factor X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1), is increased following exposure of melanocytes to phenols. XBP1 activation increases production of immune mediators IL6 and IL8. Co-treatment with XBP1 inhibitors reduced IL6 and IL8 production induced by phenols, while overexpression of XBP1 alone increased their expression. Thus, melanocytes themselves produce cytokines associated with activation of an immune response following exposure to chemical triggers of vitiligo. These results expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying melanocyte loss in vitiligo and pathways linking environmental stressors and autoimmunity.Journal of Investigative Dermatology 06/2012; 132(11):2601-9. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Certain conditions, such as several weeks of high-fat diet, disrupt endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis and activate an adaptive pathway referred as the unfolded protein response. When the unfolded protein response fails, the result is the development of inflammation and insulin resistance. These two pathological states are known to be improved by regular exercise training but the mechanisms remain largely undetermined. As it has recently been shown that the unfolded protein response is regulated by exercise, we hypothesised that concomitant treadmill exercise training (HFD+ex) prevents ER homeostasis disruption and its downstream consequences induced by a 6-week high-fat diet (HFD) in mice by activating the protective unfolded protein response. Several well-documented markers of the unfolded protein response were measured in the soleus and tibialis anterior muscles as well as in the liver and pancreas. In HFD mice, an increase in these markers was observed (from 2- to 15-fold, P < 0.05) in all tissues studied. The combination of HFD+ex increased the expression of several markers further, up to 100 % compared to HFD alone (P < 0.05). HFD increased inflammatory markers both in the plasma (IL-6 protein, 2.5 ± 0.52-fold; MIP-1α protein, 1.3 ± 0.13-fold; P < 0.05) and in the tissues studied, and treadmill exercise attenuated the inflammatory state induced by HFD (P < 0.05). However, treadmill exercise could not reverse HFD-induced whole body glucose intolerance, assessed by OGTT (AUC, 1.8 ± 0.29-fold, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results show that a HFD activated the unfolded protein response in mouse tissues in vivo, and that endurance training promoted this response. We speculate that the potentiation of the unfolded protein response by endurance training may represent a positive adaptation protecting against further cellular stress.Journal of physiology and biochemistry 08/2012; · 1.65 Impact Factor