Incidence of clinically significant bacteraemia in children who present to hospital in Kenya: community-based observational study
ABSTRACT Estimates of the burden of invasive bacterial disease in sub-Saharan Africa have previously relied on selected groups of patients, such as inpatients; they are, therefore, probably underestimated, potentially hampering vaccine implementation. Our aim was to assess the incidence of bacteraemia in all children presenting to a hospital in Kenya, irrespective of clinical presentation or decision to admit.
We did a community-based observational study for which we cultured blood from 1093 children who visited a Kenyan hospital outpatient department. We estimated bacteraemia incidence with a Demographic Surveillance System, and investigated the clinical significance of bacteraemia and the capacity of clinical signs to identify cases.
The yearly incidence of bacteraemia per 100,000 children aged younger than 2 years and younger than 5 years was 2440 (95% CI 1307-3573) and 1192 (692-1693), respectively. Incidence of pneumococcal bacteraemia was 597 (416-778) per 100,000 person-years of observation in children younger than age 5 years. Three-quarters of episodes had a clinical focus or required admission, or both; one in six was fatal. After exclusion of children with occult bacteraemia, the incidence of clinically significant bacteraemia per 100,000 children younger than age 2 years or 5 years fell to 1741 (790-2692) and 909 (475-1343), respectively, and the yearly incidence of clinically significant pneumococcal bacteraemia was 436 (132-739) per 100,000 children younger than 5 years old. Clinical signs identified bacteraemia poorly.
Clinically significant bacteraemia in children in Kilifi is twice as common, and pneumococcal bacteraemia four times as common, as previously estimated. Our data support the introduction of pneumococcal vaccine in sub-Saharan Africa.
SourceAvailable from: Martin W. Weber[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Neonatal illness is a leading cause of death worldwide; sepsis is one of the main contributors. The etiologies of community-acquired neonatal bacteremia in developing countries have not been well characterized.The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 11/2014; DOI:10.1097/INF.0000000000000549 · 3.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) are an important cause of septicemia in children under the age of five years in sub-Saharan Africa. A novel genotype of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (multi-locus sequence type [ST] 313) circulating in this geographic region is genetically different to from S. Typhimurium ST19 strains that are common throughout the rest of the world. S. Typhimurium ST313 strains have acquired pseudogenes and genetic deletions and appear to be evolving to become more like the typhoidal serovars S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A. Epidemiological and clinical data show that S. Typhimurium ST313 strains are clinically associated with invasive systemic disease (bacteremia, septicemia, meningitis) rather than with gastroenteritis. The current work summarizes investigations of the broad hypothesis that S. Typhimurium ST313 isolates from Mali, West Africa, will behave differently from ST19 isolates in various in vitro assays. Here, we show that strains of the ST313 genotype are phagocytosed more efficiently and are highly resistant to killing by macrophage cell lines and primary mouse and human macrophages compared to ST19 strains. S. Typhimurium ST313 strains survived and replicated within different macrophages. Infection of macrophages with S. Typhimurium ST19 strains resulted in increased apoptosis and higher production of proinflammatory cytokines, as measured by gene expression and protein production, compared to S. Typhimurium ST313 strains. This difference in proinflammatory cytokine production and cell death between S. Typhimurium ST19 and ST313 strains could be explained, in part, by an increased production of flagellin by ST19 strains. These observations provide further evidence that S. Typhimurium ST313 strains are phenotypically different to ST19 strains and instead share similar pathogenic characteristics with typhoidal Salmonella serovars.PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 01/2015; 9(1):e3394. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003394 · 4.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background The burden of bloodstream infections is insufficiently studied in children in Africa and many healthcare facilities lack the capacity to identify invasive disease. Often studies have been limited to febrile patients or patients admitted to hospital.Methods Blood cultures and malaria diagnostics was performed on 372 consecutive children presenting with tachycardia and/or fever to a referral paediatric emergency department in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau. Bacterial species detection, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and molecular typing were performed. The capacity of clinical parameters to identify bacteraemia was evaluated.ResultsThe prevalence of bloodstream infection was 12% (46/372) and in 46% (21/46) of the infections the child was non-febrile at presentation to the hospital. The predictive value for bacteraemia was poor for all assessed clinical parameters. Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 54% (26/48) of the isolates followed by non-typhoidal Salmonella, 10% (5/48), Streptococcus pneumoniae, 8% (4/48), and Salmonella Typhi, 6% (3/48). Among S. aureus there was a large diversity of spa types and 38% produced Pantone-Valentine leukocidin. Antibiotic resistance was low, however two out of three Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. Malaria was laboratory confirmed in only 5% of the children but 64% (237/372) received a clinical malaria diagnosis.Conclusions Bacteraemia was common irrespective of the presence of fever among children presenting to the hospital. The high prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus may be due to contamination. There is an imminent need to improve microbiological diagnostic facilities and to identify algorithms that can identify children at risk of bloodstream infections in Africa.BMC Infectious Diseases 12/2014; 14(1):715. DOI:10.1186/s12879-014-0715-9 · 2.56 Impact Factor