Incidence of clinically significant bacteraemia in children who present to hospital in Kenya: Community-based observational study

Department of Paediatrics, University of Oxford, Oxford, England, United Kingdom
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 03/2006; 367(9509):482-8. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68180-4
Source: PubMed


Estimates of the burden of invasive bacterial disease in sub-Saharan Africa have previously relied on selected groups of patients, such as inpatients; they are, therefore, probably underestimated, potentially hampering vaccine implementation. Our aim was to assess the incidence of bacteraemia in all children presenting to a hospital in Kenya, irrespective of clinical presentation or decision to admit.
We did a community-based observational study for which we cultured blood from 1093 children who visited a Kenyan hospital outpatient department. We estimated bacteraemia incidence with a Demographic Surveillance System, and investigated the clinical significance of bacteraemia and the capacity of clinical signs to identify cases.
The yearly incidence of bacteraemia per 100,000 children aged younger than 2 years and younger than 5 years was 2440 (95% CI 1307-3573) and 1192 (692-1693), respectively. Incidence of pneumococcal bacteraemia was 597 (416-778) per 100,000 person-years of observation in children younger than age 5 years. Three-quarters of episodes had a clinical focus or required admission, or both; one in six was fatal. After exclusion of children with occult bacteraemia, the incidence of clinically significant bacteraemia per 100,000 children younger than age 2 years or 5 years fell to 1741 (790-2692) and 909 (475-1343), respectively, and the yearly incidence of clinically significant pneumococcal bacteraemia was 436 (132-739) per 100,000 children younger than 5 years old. Clinical signs identified bacteraemia poorly.
Clinically significant bacteraemia in children in Kilifi is twice as common, and pneumococcal bacteraemia four times as common, as previously estimated. Our data support the introduction of pneumococcal vaccine in sub-Saharan Africa.

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Available from: Mike English, Aug 17, 2015
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    • "This vaccination programme would thus be expected to impact upon the pneumococcal serotypes implicated in PCAP. Pathogens are difficult to identify in children with pneumonia, with blood culture and serological testing often negative due to minimal presence of bacteremia (Brent et al., 2006; Korppi et al., 2008). This paucity of S. pneumoniae isolation makes examining pneumococcal serotype distribution in PCAP difficult, with no UK, and little worldwide, data. "
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    ABSTRACT: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced routinely in the UK from September 2006 and replaced by PCV13 in 2010. In a prospective study from 2009 to 2011 of 160 children aged ≤16 years with radiologically confirmed pneumonia, likely pneumococcal infections were identified in 26%. Detection of pneumococci was improved with polymerase chain reaction compared to culture (21.6% versus 6% of children tested, P = 0.0004). Where serotyping was possible, all (n = 23) were non-PCV7 but PCV13 serotypes; 1 (43.5%), 3 (21.7%), 7A/F, and 19A (17.4% each).
    Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 03/2013; 76(2). DOI:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2013.02.012 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    • "Consistent with at least one other study, we found that bacteraemia was uncommon in children with non-severe illness, especially in children who were RDT-positive [27]. However, blood culture lacks sensitivity and early recognition and treatment of blood stream infections has the potential to avert progression to severe disease with high associated mortality [14,28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: WHO guidelines for the treatment of young children with suspected malaria have recently changed from presumptive treatment to anti-malarial treatment guided by a blood slide or malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT). However, there is limited evidence of the safety of this policy in routine outpatient settings in Africa. Children 3-59 months of age with a non-severe febrile illness and no obvious cause were enrolled over a period of one year in a malaria endemic area of Tanzania. Treatment was determined by the results of a clinical examination and RDT result, and blood culture and serum lactate were also collected. RDT-negative children were followed up over 14 days. Over the course of one year, 965 children were enrolled; 158 (16.4%) were RDT-positive and treated with artemether-lumefantrine and 807 (83.4%) were RDT-negative and treated with non-anti-malarial medicines. Compared with RDT-positives, RDT-negative children were on average younger with a lower axillary temperature and more likely to have a history of cough or difficulty in breathing. Six (0.6%) children became RDT-positive after enrollment, all of whom were PCR-negative for Plasmodium falciparum DNA at enrollment. In addition, 12 (1.2%) children were admitted to hospital, one with possible malaria, none of whom died. A bacterial pathogen was identified in 9/965 (0.9%) children, eight of whom were RDT-negative and one was RDT-positive, but slide-negative. Excluding three children with Salmonella typhi, all of the children with bacteraemia were ≤ 12 months of age. Compared to double-read research slide results RDTs had a sensitivity of 97.8% (95% CI 96.9-98.7) and specificity of 96.3% (95% CI 96.3-98.4). Use of RDTs to direct the use of anti-malarial drugs in young children did not result in any missed diagnoses of malaria although new infections soon after a consultation with a negative RDT result may undermine confidence in results. Invasive bacterial disease is uncommon in children with non-severe illness and most cases occurred in infants with a current fever.
    Malaria Journal 10/2011; 10(1):290. DOI:10.1186/1475-2875-10-290 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    • "While routine use of blood cultures is uncommon in sub-Saharan Africa, expanded use of blood culture at a few sentinel sites has highlighted the importance of invasive bacterial disease as a cause of illness and death among children both within and outside the hospital (Campbell et al. 2004; Berkley et al. 2005; Brent et al. 2006; Gordon et al. 2008; Sigauque et al. 2009; Nadjm et al. 2010; Reddy et al. 2010). Patients with invasive bacterial disease frequently are treated empirically with antimalarial drugs without antibacterial therapy, resulting in adverse outcomes (Reyburn et al. 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: To describe the contribution of paediatric HIV and of HIV co-infections to admissions to a hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, using contemporary laboratory methods. During 1 year, we enrolled consecutively admitted patients aged ≥2 months and <13 years with current or recent fever. All patients underwent standardized clinical history taking, a physical examination and HIV antibody testing; standard aerobic blood cultures and malaria film were also done, and hospital outcome was recorded. Early infant HIV diagnosis by HIV-1 RNA PCR was performed on those aged <18 months. HIV-infected patients also received serum cryptococcal antigen testing and had their CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count and percent determined. A total of 467 patients were enrolled whose median age was 2 years (range 2 months-13 years); Of those patients, 57.2% were female and 12.2% were HIV-infected. Admission clinical diagnosis of HIV disease was made in 10.7% and of malaria in 60.4%. Of blood cultures, 5.8% grew pathogens; of these 25.9% were Salmonella enterica (including 6 Salmonella Typhi) and 22.2%Streptococcus pneumoniae. Plasmodium falciparum was identified on blood film of 1.3%. HIV infection was associated with S. pneumoniae (odds ratio 25.7, 95% CI 2.8, 234.0) bloodstream infection (BSI), but there was no evidence of an association with Escherichia coli or P. falciparum; Salmonella Typhi BSI occurred only among HIV-uninfected participants. The sensitivity and specificity of an admission clinical diagnosis of malaria were 100% and 40.3%; and for an admission diagnosis of bloodstream infection, they were 9.1% and 86.4%, respectively. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bloodstream infection among paediatric admissions in Tanzania and is closely associated with HIV infection. Malaria was over-diagnosed clinically, whereas invasive bacterial disease was underestimated. HIV and HIV co-infections contribute to a substantial proportion of paediatric febrile admissions, underscoring the value of routine HIV testing.
    Tropical Medicine & International Health 04/2011; 16(7):830-7. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02774.x · 2.33 Impact Factor
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