Article

Disruption of bovine oocytes and preimplantation embryos by urea and acidic pH.

Department of Animal Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, 32611-0910, USA.
Journal of Dairy Science (Impact Factor: 2.55). 05/2003; 86(4):1194-200. DOI: 10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(03)73703-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Feeding cattle diets high in degradable crude protein (CP) or in excess of requirements can reduce fertility and lower uterine pH. Objectives were to determine direct effects of urea and acidic pH during oocyte maturation and embryonic development. For experiment 1, oocytes were matured in medium containing 0, 5, 7.5, or 10 mM urea (0, 14, 21, or 28 mg/dl urea nitrogen, respectively). Cleavage rate was not reduced by any concentration of urea. However, the proportion of oocytes developing to the blastocyst stage at d 8 after insemination was reduced by 7.5 mM urea. In addition, the proportion of cleaved oocytes becoming blastocysts was decreased by 5 and 7.5 mM urea. For experiment 2, putative zygotes were collected -9 h after insemination and cultured in modified Potassium Simplex Optimized Medium (KSOM). Urea did not reduce the proportion of oocytes developing to the blastocyst stage, although 10 mM urea reduced cleavage rate slightly. For experiment 3, dimethadione (DMD), a weak nonmetabolizable acid, was used to decrease culture medium pH. Putative zygotes were cultured in modified KSOM containing 0, 10, 15, or 20 mM DMD for 8 d. DMD reduced cleavage rate at 15 and 20 mM and development to the blastocyst stage at all concentrations. Results support the idea that feeding diets rich in highly degradable CP compromises fertility through direct actions of urea on the oocyte and through diet-induced alterations in uterine pH.

0 Followers
 · 
87 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maternal periconceptional (PC) nutrition, coupled with maternal physiological condition, can impact on reproductive performance and potential across mammalian species. Oocyte quality and embryo development are affected adversely by either nutrient restriction or excess. Moreover, the quality of maternal PC nutrition can have lasting effects through fetal development and postnatally into adulthood. Chronic disease, notably cardiovascular and metabolic disease, and abnormal behaviour have been identified in adult offspring in small and large animal models of PC nutrient restriction. These long-term effects associate with compensatory responses that begin from the time of early embryo development. This review assesses the field of PC nutrition in vivo on short- and long-term developmental consequences in rodent and ruminant models and considers the implications for human health.
    Reproduction Fertility and Development 12/2011; 24(1):35-44. DOI:10.1071/RD11905 · 2.58 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Unsatisfactory reproductive performance in dairy cows, such as reduced conception rates, in addition to an increased incidence of early embryonic mortality, is reported worldwide and has been associated with a period of negative energy balance (NEB) early post partum. Typically, NEB is associated with biochemical changes such as high non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), high β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) and low glucose concentrations. The concentrations of these and other metabolites in the follicular fluid (FF) of high-yielding dairy cows during NEB were determined and extensively analyzed, and then were replicated in in vitro maturation models to investigate their effect on oocyte quality. The results showed that typical metabolic changes during NEB are well reflected in the FF of the dominant follicle. However, the oocyte seems to be relatively isolated from extremely elevated NEFA or very low glucose concentrations in the blood. Nevertheless, the in vitro maturation models revealed that NEB-associated high NEFA and low glucose levels in the FF are indeed toxic to the oocyte, resulting in deficient oocyte maturation and developmental competence. Induced apoptosis and necrosis in the cumulus cells was particularly obvious. Furthermore, maturation in saturated free fatty acid-rich media had a carry-over effect on embryo quality, leading to reduced cryotolerance of day 7 embryos. Only β-OHB showed an additive toxic effect in moderately hypoglycemic maturation conditions. These in vitro maturation models, based on in vivo observations, suggest that a period of NEB may hamper the fertility of high-yielding dairy cows through increased NEFA and decreased glucose concentrations in the FF directly affecting oocyte quality. In addition to oocyte quality, these results also demonstrate that embryo quality is reduced following an NEB episode. This important observation may be linked to the typical diet provided to stimulate milk yield, or to physiological adaptations sustaining the high milk production. Research into this phenomenon is ongoing.
    animal 08/2008; 2(8):1120-7. DOI:10.1017/S1751731108002383 · 1.78 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Negative energy balance (NEB) in high yielding dairy cows early postpartum may affect oocyte quality. Therefore, we tested the effect of two different beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and glucose concentrations, which are associated with subclinical or clinical ketosis, during in vitro maturation (IVM) on the developmental competence of bovine oocytes. In Expt 1, subclinical ketosis conditions were imitated. Oocytes were matured in four different serum-free media with two glucose concentrations (g1=2.75 mm or G1=5.5 mm glucose) and with or without BHB (BHB1=1.8 mm BHB). Following maturation groups were used: g1, G1, g1:BHB1 and G1:BHB1. In Expt 2, clinical ketosis conditions were mimicked by using the concentrations: g2=1.375 mm or G2=3.1 mm glucose and BHB2=4.0 mm BHB. The combinations used were: g2, G2, g2:BHB2 and G2:BHB2. After IVM and in vitro fertilization (IVF), presumptive zygotes were routinely cultured for 7 days in synthetic oviduct fluid [SOF; 5% fetal calf serum (FCS)]. At 48 h and 8 days pi, cleavage rate and number of blastocysts were recorded respectively. The results demonstrated that the maturation conditions mimicking subclinical (g1:BHB1) and clinical ketosis (g2 : BHB2) resulted in an impaired developmental competence of the oocyte after maturation. Especially the moderately low (g1) or extremely low glucose (g2) concentrations were responsible for this detrimental effect that was associated with a blocked cumulus expansion. Only in moderately low glucose conditions (g1:BHB1), BHB exerted an additive toxic effect during oocyte maturation resulting in a reduced blastocyst rate. Conclusively, our results may suggest that subclinical and clinical ketosis can affect the oocyte's developmental competence most likely through a directly adverse effect of the low glucose concentrations on oocyte maturation. Only in subclinical conditions this harmful effect may be aggravated by BHB.
    Reproduction in Domestic Animals 05/2006; 41(2):119-23. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0531.2006.00650.x · 1.18 Impact Factor

Preview (2 Sources)

Download
0 Downloads
Available from