Influence of hormone replacement therapy on blood antioxidant enzymes in menopausal women.
ABSTRACT Natural loss of estrogen occurring in menopausal process may contribute to various health problems many of them possibly related to oxidative stress. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is the most common treatment to attenuate menopausal disturbances. This study was aimed at evaluating the influence of HRT on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; and glutathione peroxidase, GPx) and lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) in menopausal women.
Blood antioxidant enzyme activities were determined in premenopausal (n=18) and in postmenopausal healthy women without (n=21) or with (n=19) HRT (mean ages: 47, 59, and 57 years, respectively).
TBARS, CAT, and GPx activity were not significantly different among the groups of study. However, SOD activity was significantly lower in postmenopausal women without HRT (0.68+/-0.04 U/mg Hb) when compared both to premenopausal women (0.91+/-0.04 U/mg Hb) and to postmenopausal women with HRT (0.89+/-0.07 U/mg Hb). SOD activity was positively correlated to the duration of HRT in the postmenopausal groups (r=0.33, p<0.05).
HRT antagonizes the decrease of SOD activity that occurs after menopause, suggesting that HRT may play a beneficial role in the protection against oxidative stress.
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ABSTRACT: The present study was undertaken to investigate the role of estrogen and progesterone in the expression of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) and manganese SOD (Mn-SOD) in human endometrial stromal cells (ESC). ESC were incubated with estradiol (10(-8) mol/l), medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 10(-6) mol/l), or estradiol + MPA for 18 days. MPA significantly increased Cu,Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD mRNA levels and enzyme activities as well as the mRNA level of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), a marker for decidualization. Estradiol only augmented the effects of MPA on Cu,Zn-SOD activity and IGFBP-1 mRNA level, and estradiol alone had no effect. To study the withdrawal of estrogen and progesterone (EP withdrawal), ESC that had been treated with estradiol + MPA for 12 days were washed and then incubated with or without estradiol + MPA for a further 11 days. Cu,Zn-SOD mRNA levels and activities declined after EP withdrawal, while they were gradually increased by the continuous treatment with estradiol + MPA. In contrast, Mn-SOD mRNA levels and activities were not affected by EP withdrawal. IGFBP-1 mRNA levels were significantly increased 4 days after EP withdrawal and decreased thereafter, whereas they were gradually increased by the continuous treatment with estradiol + MPA. In conclusion, Cu,Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and IGFBP-1 are differently regulated by estrogen and progesterone in human ESC. The decrease in Cu,Zn-SOD after the ovarian steroid withdrawal may be involved in endometrial breakdown.Molecular Human Reproduction 02/2002; 8(1):68-74. · 4.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The cupro-zinc enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) undergoes an irreversible (oxidative) inactivation when exposed to its product, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Recent studies have shown that several oxidatively modified proteins (e.g., hemoglobin, albumin, catalase, etc.) are preferentially degraded by a novel proteolytic pathway in the red blood cell. We report that bovine SOD is oxidatively inactivated by exposure to H2O2, and that the inactivated enzyme is selectively degraded by proteolytic enzymes in cell-free extracts of bovine erythrocytes. For example, 95% inactivation of SOD by 1.5 mM H2O2 was accompanied by a 106 fold increase in the proteolytic susceptibility of the enzyme during (a subsequent) incubation with red cell extract. Both SOD inactivation and proteolytic susceptibility increased with H2O2 concentration and/or time of exposure to H2O2. Pre-incubation of red cell extracts with metal chelators, serine reagents, or sulfhydryl reagents inhibited the (subsequent) preferential degradation of H2O2-modified SOD. Furthermore, a slight inhibition of degradation was observed with the addition of ATP. We suggest that H2O2-inactivated SOD is recognized and preferentially degraded by the same. ATP-independent, metallo- serine- and sulfhydryl- proteinase pathway which degrades other oxidatively denatured red cell proteins. Related work in this laboratory suggests that this novel proteolytic pathway may actually consist of a 700 kDa enzyme complex of proteolytic activities. Mature red cells have no capacity for de novo protein synthesis but do have extremely high concentrations of SOD. Red cell SOD generates (and is, therefore, exposed to) H2O2 on a continuous basis, by dismutation of superoxide (from hemoglobin autooxidation and the interaction of hemoglobin with numerous xenobiotics).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)Free Radical Biology and Medicine 02/1988; 5(5-6):335-9. · 5.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Estradiol is an established antioxidant in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, prooxidant effects such as 8-hydroxylation of guanine bases of DNA have been induced by various estrogens in hamsters and by 4-hydroxyestradiol or -estrone and a microsomal activating system in vitro. As part of an examination of these conflicting reports, we studied the enhancement or inhibition of lipid peroxidation (conjugated diene formation monitored at 240 nm) by catecholestrogens in human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) incubated with cupric sulfate in phosphate buffer. Addition of 2- or 4-hydroxyestradiol, 2- or 4-methoxyestradiol, or estradiol or estriol (0.5-50 microM) increased lag times for diene formation by 30 to <300% over control values in the absence of estrogens (lag time, 1.6 h). In contrast, low concentrations (5 pM-100 nM) of catecholestrogens decreased lag times by about 40-50%, demonstrating their prooxidant activities. The prooxidant capabilities of catecholestrogens were examined by assaying the reduction by estrogens of Cu(II) to Cu(I) and of Fe(III) to Fe(II). Both 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol and 2- and 4-methoxyestradiol reduced Cu(II) and Fe(III) ions to their lower oxidation state. In conclusion, the reduction of Cu(II) to Cu(I) by catecholestrogens is proposed to initiate lipid peroxidation and thus oxidation of LDL. In contrast, at high concentrations of catecholestrogens, the scavenging of oxygen radicals may predominate over lipid peroxidation and free radical generation by analogy to the action of similar phenolic antioxidants. With estradiol, estriol, and the methoxyestrogen metabolites, only antioxidant effects were observed.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 01/1999; 360(1):105-12. · 3.37 Impact Factor