The proconvulsant effect of sildenafil in mice: role of nitric oxide-cGMP pathway.
ABSTRACT Recent evidence indicates that sildenafil may exert some central effects through enhancement of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated effects. NO is known to have modulatory effects on seizure threshold, raising the possibility that sildenafil may alter seizure susceptibility through NO-mediated mechanisms. This study was performed to examine whether sildenafil influences the threshold of clonic and/or generalized tonic seizures through modulation of nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway. The effect of sildenafil (1-40 mg kg(-1)) was investigated on clonic seizures induced by intravenous administration of GABA antagonists pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and bicuculine and on generalized tonic seizures induced by intraperitoneal administration of high dose PTZ in male Swiss mice. The interaction of sildenafil-induced effects with NO-cGMP pathway was examined using nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), NOS substrate L-arginine, NO donor, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and guanylyl cyclase inhibitor methylene blue (MB). Sildenafil induced a dose-dependent proconvulsant effect in both models of clonic, but not generalized tonic type of seizures. Pretreatment with either MB or L-NAME inhibited the proconvulsant effect of sildenafil, indicating the mediation of this effect by NO-cGMP pathway. In addition, a subeffective dose of sildenafil induced an additive proconvulsant effect when combined with either L-arginine or SNP. Sildenafil induces a proconvulsant effect on clonic seizure threshold that interacts with both exogenously and endogenously released NO and may be linked to activation of NO-cGMP pathway.
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ABSTRACT: We studied the effects of nitric oxide (NO)-producing agents on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in cultured neurons. 3-Morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1) blocked both NMDA-induced currents and the associated increase in intracellular Ca2+. The actions of SIN-1 were reversible and suppressed by hemoglobin. A degraded SIN-1 solution that did not release NO was unable to block NMDA receptors. This showed that the SIN-1 effects were due to NO and not to another breakdown product. Similar results were obtained with 1-nitrosopyrrolidine (an NO-containing drug) and with NO released from NaNO2. Pretreatment with hemoglobin potentiated NMDA-induced effects, demonstrating that endogenous NO modulates NMDA receptors. Since NMDA receptor activation induces NO synthesis, these results suggest a feedback inhibition of NMDA receptors by NO under physiological condition.Neuron 05/1992; 8(4):653-62. · 14.74 Impact Factor