The impact of rheumatoid arthritis on medical expenditures, absenteeism, and short-term disability benefits.
ABSTRACT The objectives of this study were to estimate medical expenditures, absenteeism, and short-term disability costs for workers with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to estimate the relative costs of RA over a 12-month period.
Using data from nine U.S. employers, direct and indirect costs for 8502 workers with RA were compared with costs for a matched group without RA. Regression analyses controlled for factors that were different even after propensity score matching.
Average total costs for workers with RA were $4244 (2003 dollars) greater than for workers without RA. RA was the fourth most costly chronic condition per employee compared with cancers, asthma, bipolar disorder, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, low back disorders, and renal failure.
RA is a costly disorder and merits consideration as interventions are considered to improve workers' health and productivity.
SourceAvailable from: Arijit Ganguli[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives: To compare income growth over time between employees with RA treated with anti-TNFs and those treated with methotrexate (MTX). Methods: Privately insured employees (aged ≥ 18) with ≥ 1 RA diagnosis (ICD-9: 714.0) were identified from a large-scale U.S. employer claims database (1998-2011). Patients were stratified into treatment groups (anti-TNF-treated patients and MTX-monotherapy patients) based on their treatment history. The anti-TNF-treated patients comprised patients who filled ≥1 prescription for anti-TNFs, with or without MTX (index date defined as the date of the first anti-TNF prescription). The MTX-treated patients comprised patients who filled ≥1 prescription for MTX-monotherapy (index date randomly selected). The primary study outcome was the annual income growth rate (US dollars). Patients were followed from their index date to health plan disenrollment or the end of data availability (maximum follow-up of 5 years). The effect of treatment type on income growth was assessed using a multivariable generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for key baseline characteristics. Income growth was compared to that of the general employed population using Social Security data (1998-2011). Results: The regression-adjusted annual growth rate in income for anti-TNF-treated patients (N=1,848) was 2.8% (CI: 1.9%-3.6%), significantly greater (p<0.05) than the 0.6% (CI: -0.2%-1.4%) for MTX-monotherapy patients (N=1,866). Compared to the general employed population, income growth was lower (p<0.05) for MTX-monotherapy patients and comparable for anti-TNF-treated patients. Conclusions: Compared to MTX-monotherapy, anti-TNF treatment is associated with a higher income growth rate among employees with RA. Anti-TNF-treated patients experienced comparable income growth to the general employed population norm.Journal of Medical Economics 05/2014; DOI:10.3111/13696998.2014.925465
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ABSTRACT: The primary aim of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment is to induce remission, the absence of disease activity. The objective of this study was to explore the association between clinical endpoints used to gauge RA treatment efficacy and patient-reported outcomes of health-related quality of life, fatigue, and physical function in RA patients treated with secukinumab in a phase 2 randomized controlled trial (RCT). Adult RA patients (n = 237) with incomplete responses to methotrexate were randomized equally to receive monthly s.c. injections of secukinumab 25 mg, 75 mg, 150 mg, 300 mg or placebo. Clinical endpoints used in this study included the ACR response criteria and its components and simplified disease activity score. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO) included Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 [SF-36] Survey, and Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-Fatigue). Patients were categorized into mutually exclusive groups according to the magnitude and direction of change from baseline to week 16 in each clinical endpoint. Definitions of minimal important differences [MID] in each clinical endpoint were used to categorize patients, as well as thresholds beyond MID. Mean changes from baseline to week 16 were computed for each PRO and analyses of variance to test the differences in PRO changes observed across groups of patients that differed in each clinical endpoint. Analyses were limited to patients randomized to secukinumab treatment. All dose groups were combined (n = 187). Mean changes from baseline in each PRO differed significantly across groups of patients in the expected direction. With few exceptions, there was considerable agreement between clinical endpoints and PROs concerning the magnitude of change defined as clinically meaningful. More importantly, results demonstrated that greater improvements in clinical endpoints were associated with incrementally better improvements in HRQoL, fatigue, and physical function. Results of this study show considerable agreement between minimal thresholds of improvement established for PROs and clinical outcome measures used in RA treatment studies and provide thresholds to be considered in gauging the importance of a treatment effect that goes beyond what is considered as minimally important for PRO measures.Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 03/2014; 12(1):31. DOI:10.1186/1477-7525-12-31 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Few blinded trials have compared conventional therapy consisting of a combination of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs with biologic agents in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who have active disease despite treatment with methotrexate - a common scenario in the management of rheumatoid arthritis. Methods We conducted a 48-week, double-blind, noninferiority trial in which we randomly assigned 353 participants with rheumatoid arthritis who had active disease despite methotrexate therapy to a triple regimen of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine) or etanercept plus methotrexate. Patients who did not have an improvement at 24 weeks according to a prespecified threshold were switched in a blinded fashion to the other therapy. The primary outcome was improvement in the Disease Activity Score for 28-joint counts (DAS28, with scores ranging from 2 to 10 and higher scores indicating more disease activity) at week 48. Results Both groups had significant improvement over the course of the first 24 weeks (P=0.001 for the comparison with baseline). A total of 27% of participants in each group required a switch in treatment at 24 weeks. Participants in both groups who switched therapies had improvement after switching (P<0.001), and the response after switching did not differ significantly between the two groups (P=0.08). The change between baseline and 48 weeks in the DAS28 was similar in the two groups (-2.1 with triple therapy and -2.3 with etanercept and methotrexate, P=0.26); triple therapy was noninferior to etanercept and methotrexate, since the 95% upper confidence limit of 0.41 for the difference in change in DAS28 was below the margin for noninferiority of 0.6 (P=0.002). There were no significant between-group differences in secondary outcomes, including radiographic progression, pain, and health-related quality of life, or in major adverse events associated with the medications. Conclusions With respect to clinical benefit, triple therapy, with sulfasalazine and hydroxychloroquine added to methotrexate, was noninferior to etanercept plus methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who had active disease despite methotrexate therapy. (Funded by the Cooperative Studies Program, Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development, and others; CSP 551 RACAT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00405275 .).New England Journal of Medicine 06/2013; 369(4). DOI:10.1056/NEJMoa1303006 · 54.42 Impact Factor