Crystal structure and nonhomologous end-joining function of the ligase component of Mycobacterium DNA ligase D.
ABSTRACT DNA ligase D (LigD) is a large polyfunctional enzyme involved in nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) in mycobacteria. LigD consists of a C-terminal ATP-dependent ligase domain fused to upstream polymerase and phosphoesterase modules. Here we report the 2.4 angstroms crystal structure of the ligase domain of Mycobacterium LigD, captured as the covalent ligase-AMP intermediate with a divalent metal in the active site. A chloride anion on the protein surface coordinated by the ribose 3'-OH and caged by arginine and lysine side chains is a putative mimetic of the 5'-phosphate at a DNA nick. Structure-guided mutational analysis revealed distinct requirements for the adenylylation and end-sealing reactions catalyzed by LigD. We found that a mutation of Mycobacterium LigD that ablates only ligase activity results in decreased fidelity of NHEJ in vivo and a strong bias of mutagenic events toward deletions instead of insertions at the sealed DNA ends. This phenotype contrasts with the increased fidelity of double-strand break repair in deltaligD cells or in a strain in which only the polymerase function of LigD is defective. We surmise that the signature error-prone quality of bacterial NHEJ in vivo arises from a dynamic balance between the end-remodeling and end-sealing steps.
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ABSTRACT: DNA ligases are a structurally diverse class of enzymes which share a common catalytic core and seal breaks in the phosphodiester backbone of double-stranded DNA via an adenylated intermediate. Here, the structure and activity of a recombinantly produced ATP-dependent DNA ligase from the bacterium Psychromonas sp. strain SP041 is described. This minimal-type ligase, like its close homologues, is able to ligate singly nicked double-stranded DNA with high efficiency and to join cohesive-ended and blunt-ended substrates to a more limited extent. The 1.65 Å resolution crystal structure of the enzyme-adenylate complex reveals no unstructured loops or segments, and suggests that this enzyme binds the DNA without requiring full encirclement of the DNA duplex. This is in contrast to previously characterized minimal DNA ligases from viruses, which use flexible loop regions for DNA interaction. The Psychromonas sp. enzyme is the first structure available for the minimal type of bacterial DNA ligases and is the smallest DNA ligase to be crystallized to date.Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 11/2014; 70(Pt 11):3043-56. · 7.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study unveils Mycobacterium smegmatis DinB2 as the founder of a clade of Y-family DNA polymerase that is naturally adept at incorporating ribonucleotides by virtue of a leucine in lieu of a canonical aromatic steric gate. DinB2 efficiently scavenges limiting dNTP and rNTP substrates in the presence of manganese. DinB2's sugar selectivity factor, gauged by rates of manganese-dependent dNMP versus rNMP addition, is 2.7- to 3.8-fold. DinB2 embeds ribonucleotides during DNA synthesis when rCTP and dCTP are at equimolar concentration. DinB2 can incorporate at least 16 consecutive ribonucleotides. In magnesium, DinB2 has a 26- to 78-fold lower affinity for rNTPs than dNTPs, but only a 2.6- to 6-fold differential in rates of deoxy versus ribo addition (kpol). Two other M. smegmatis Y-family polymerases, DinB1 and DinB3, are characterized here as template-dependent DNA polymerases that discriminate strongly against ribonucleotides, a property that, in the case of DinB1, correlates with its aromatic steric gate side chain. We speculate that the unique ability of DinB2 to utilize rNTPs might allow for DNA repair with a 'ribo patch' when dNTPs are limiting. Phylogenetic analysis reveals DinB2-like polymerases, with leucine, isoleucine or valine steric gates, in many taxa of the phylum Actinobacteria.Nucleic Acids Research 09/2014; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Non homologous end joining (NHEJ) is a recently described bacterial DNA double strand break (DSB) repair pathway that has been best characterized in Mycobacteria. NHEJ can religate transformed linear plasmids, repair ionizing radiation (IR) induced DSBs in nonreplicating cells, and seal I-SceI induced chromosomal DSBs. The core components of the mycobacterial NHEJ machinery are the DNA end binding protein Ku and the polyfunctional DNA Ligase LigD. LigD has three autonomous enzymatic modules: ATP dependent DNA Ligase (LIG), DNA/RNA polymerase (POL), and 3' phosphoesterase (PE). Although genetic ablation of ku or ligD abolishes NHEJ and sensitizes nonreplicating cells to ionizing radiation, selective ablation of the ligase activity of LigD in vivo only mildly impairs NHEJ of linearized plasmids, indicating that an additional DNA ligase can support NHEJ. Additionally, the in vivo role of the POL and PE domains in NHEJ is unclear. Here we define a LigD-ligase independent NHEJ pathway in M. smegmatis that requires the ATP dependent DNA ligase LigC1 and the POL domain of LigD. M. tuberculosis LigC can also support this backup NHEJ pathway. We also demonstrate that, although dispensable for efficient plasmid NHEJ, the activities of the POL and PE domains are required for repair of IR induced DSBs in nonreplicating cells. These findings define the genetic requirements for a LigD independent NHEJ pathway in mycobacteria and demonstrate that all enzymatic functions of the LigD protein participate in NHEJ in vivo.Journal of bacteriology. 06/2014;