Emergence of a three codon deletion in gag p17 in HIV type 1 subtype C long-term survivors, and general population spread.
ABSTRACT In a population-based study in northern Malawi we investigated HIV-1 subtype C gag and env gene sequences associated with long-term survival. DNA samples were available from 31 individuals surviving between population surveys carried out in the 1980s and 1990s. Most survivors with paired sequences dating from the 1980s and the 1990s had a three codon deletion in the gag p17 region of the sequence retrieved from the sample collected in the 1990s that was not present in the sequence from the same individual dating from the 1980s. This deletion was also not present in any other 1980s sequences from Malawi, but was common in samples collected in Malawi in the 1990s. The deletion is equivalent to the loss of three amino acids in the D helix region of the gag protein, and may be associated with longer survival and onward transmission.
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ABSTRACT: We conducted a molecular epidemiological study on newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients in Hong Kong to identify the epidemiological linkage of HIV-1 infection in the locality. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for HIV-1 was performed on newly diagnosed HIV-1-positive sera collected from January 2002 to December 2006. PCR products correspond to the env C2V3V4 region and gag p17/p24 junction of the HIV-1 genome were nucleotide sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses performed on the acquired nucleotide sequences revealed that CRF01_AE and subtype B were the two dominant HIV-1 subtypes. Analyses also demonstrated the presence of three emerging HIV-1 clusters among the subtype B sequences in Hong Kong. Individual cluster possesses a unique cluster-specific amino acid signature for identification. Data show that one of the clusters (Cluster I) is rapidly expanding. In addition to the unique cluster-specific amino acid signature, the majority of sequences in Cluster I harbor a 6-amino acid insertion at the gag p17/p24 junction in a region that is thought to be closely associated with HIV-1 infectivity.AIDS research and human retroviruses 08/2008; 24(7):903-10. · 2.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our previous studies have shown that gross deletions in the nef gene as well as slow decreases in CD4 T cell numbers are associated with Korean red ginseng (KRG) intake in HIV-1-infected patients. To determine whether there might be an association between KRG intake and occurrence of gross deletions (gDelta) in the 5' LTR and gag regions, we examined the 1125 base pair (bp) sequences encompassing these regions in 10 long-term survivors (LTSs) treated with KRG (total of 13,364 +/- 5364 g) for > 12 years, and in 8 LTS control patients with no or minimal (total of 1436 +/- 1027 g) KRG intake (LTS controls). In the 10 LTSs, 189 PCR products were obtained from 80 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples. In total, 44 of the 80 PBMC samples (55%) and 71 of the 189 PCR products (37.6%) displayed gDelta. While 55% of PBMC samples and 37.6% of PCR products showed gDelta in the 10 LTSs, the corresponding figures for the eight LTS controls were 30.3% and 14.8%. These differences were significant (p < 0.05 and p = 0, respectively). In addition, the proportions of 28 patients in the general population (without KRG intake) displaying PBMC and PCR gDelta were 13.3% and 8.3%, respectively. Our data strongly suggest that gDelta occurrence in the HIV-1 5' LTR and gag regions is associated with KRG intake.AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 03/2008; 24(2):181-93. · 2.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Here we present new sequence data from HIV-1 subtype C-infected long-term survivors (LTS) from Karonga District, Malawi. Gag and env sequence data were produced from nine individuals each of whom has been HIV-1 positive for more than 20 years. We show that the three amino acid deletion in gag p17 previously described from these LTS is not real and was a result of an alignment error. We find that the use of dried blood spots for DNA-based studies is limited after storage for 20 years. We also show some unlikely amino acid changes in env C2-V3 in LTS over time and different patterns of genetic divergence among LTS. Although no clear association between mutations and survival could be shown, amino acid changes that are present in more than one LTS may, in the future, be shown to be important.AIDS research and human retroviruses 06/2011; 28(3):308-13. · 2.18 Impact Factor