Surgical treatment for congenital arteriovenous malformation: 10 years' experience.
ABSTRACT We report our 10 years experience of the surgical treatment of congenital arteriovenous malformation (AVM).
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 145 patients with AVM who visited Samsung Medical Center in Korea from 1994 to 2003. Among the 145 patients, 21 patients were operated on. Preoperative embolo/sclerotherapy was done in 20 out of the 21 patients.
The surgically treated AVMs were 13 cases of head and neck lesions, four cases of upper extremity lesions, one case each of back lesion, uterus lesion, lower extremity lesion and multiple site lesions. There were 10 patients with the extratruncular infiltrating type, nine patients with the extratruncular limited type, one patient with a truncular superficial AV fistula and one patient with a mixed type. Fourteen cases were operated on for cosmetic reasons and since they had localized lesions, and five cases were operated on for tissue necrosis. Fourteen cases were cured by a single operation, yet seven cases needed several sessions of operation to cure the AVM or to promote wound healing after surgery.
The surgical treatment of AVM is a challenging issue for vascular surgeons. To minimise the complications related to surgery, a multidisciplinary team approach should be considered.
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ABSTRACT: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a type of high-flow vascular malformations that most commonly occurs in the head and neck. They are present at birth but are usually clinically asymptomatic until later in life. The pathogenesis of AVMs remains unclear and therapeutic approaches to AVMs are unsatisfied. In order to provide a tool for studying the pathogenesis and therapies of this disease, we established and studied a xenograft animal model of human AVMs. Fresh human AVMs specimens harvested from 4 patients were sectioned (5x5x5 mm) and xenografted subcutaneously in 5 immunologically naive nude mice (Athymic Nude-Foxn1nu). Each mouse had four pieces specimens in four quadrants along the back. The grafts were observed weekly for volume, color and texture. The grafts were harvested at every 30 days intervals for histologic examination. All grafts (n = 20) were sectioned and stained for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Comparative pathologic evaluation of the grafts and native AVMs were performed by two blinded pathologists. Immunohistochemical examination of human-specific nuclear antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and Ki-67 was performed. Clinical characteristics and pathologic diagnosis of native human derived AVMs were confirmed. 85% (n = 17) of AVM xenografts survived although the sizes decreased after implantation. Histological examination demonstrated numerous small and medium-size vessels and revealed structural characteristics matching the native AVMs tissue.76.5% (n = 13) of the surviving xenografts were positive for Ki-67 and human-specific nuclear antigen suggesting survival of the human derived tissue, 52.9% (n = 9) were positive for VEGFR-2. This preliminary xenograft animal model suggests that AVMs can survive in the nude mouse. The presence of human-specific nuclear antigen, VEGFR-2, and Ki-67 demonstrates the stability of native tissue qualities within the xenografts.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 12/2013; 8(1):199. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: A chronic arteriovenous malformation (AVM) model using the swine retia mirabilia (RMB) was developed and compared with the human extracranial AVM (EAVM) both in hemodynamics and pathology, to see if this brain AVM model can be used as an EAVM model. METHODS: We created an arteriovenous fistula between the common carotid artery and the external jugular vein in eight animals by using end-to-end anastomosis. All animals were sacrificed 1 month after surgery, and the bilateral retia were obtained at autopsy and performed hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Pre- and postsurgical hemodynamic evaluations also were conducted. Then, the blood flow and histological changes of the animal model were compared with human EAVM. RESULTS: The angiography after operation showed that the blood flow, like human EAVM, flowed from the feeding artery, via the nidus, drained to the draining vein. Microscopic examination showed dilated lumina and disrupted internal elastic lamina in both RMB of model and nidus of human EAVM, but the thickness of vessel wall had significant difference. Immunohistochemical reactivity for smooth muscle actin, angiopoietin 1, and angiopoietin 2 were similar in chronic model nidus microvessels and human EAVM, whereas vascular endothelial growth factor was significant difference between human EAVM and RMB of model. CONCLUSIONS: The AVM model described here is similar to human EAVM in hemodynamics and immunohistochemical features, but there are still some differences in anatomy and pathogenetic mechanism. Further study is needed to evaluate the applicability and efficacy of this model.CardioVascular and Interventional Radiology 05/2013; · 2.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hemangiomas are benign vascular anomalies characterized by benign proliferation of blood vessels. There are no well-defined criteria for the diagnosis and treatment of oral capillary hemangioma (OCH). The objective of this study is to report a safe, effective, and low-cost protocol for diagnosis and treatment of OCH. Eight patients were diagnosed with OCH, through two physical examination maneuvers-the diascopy and head lowering maneuver with abdominal compression (HLMAC). The treatment performed was sclerotherapy with ethanolamine oleate, weekly, until the disappearance of the lesion. No local anesthetics were administered prior to the sclerosing agent injection. All cases showed a complete remission of the lesions after sclerotherapy. There were no visible scars or compromise esthetics or normal function, and there was no evidence of recurrence. Only one patient had superficial ulceration, which remained asymptomatic and healed without specific treatment. This protocol was effective in the diagnosis of OCH through two physical examination maneuvers with low-cost and easy implementation, the diascopy and the HLMAC. The low concentration associated with a reduced amount of the sclerosing agent was responsible for the excellent results in the cases treated.Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 11/2013;