A second SNARE role for exocytic SNAP25 in endosome fusion.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA.
Molecular Biology of the Cell (Impact Factor: 4.55). 06/2006; 17(5):2113-24. DOI: 10.1091/mbc.E06-01-0074
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins play key roles in membrane fusion, but their sorting to specific membranes is poorly understood. Moreover, individual SNARE proteins can function in multiple membrane fusion events dependent upon their trafficking itinerary. Synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) is a plasma membrane Q (containing glutamate)-SNARE essential for Ca2+-dependent secretory vesicle-plasma membrane fusion in neuroendocrine cells. However, a substantial intracellular pool of SNAP25 is maintained by endocytosis. To assess the role of endosomal SNAP25, we expressed botulinum neurotoxin E (BoNT E) light chain in PC12 cells, which specifically cleaves SNAP25. BoNT E expression altered the intracellular distribution of SNAP25, shifting it from a perinuclear recycling endosome to sorting endosomes, which indicates that SNAP25 is required for its own endocytic trafficking. The trafficking of syntaxin 13 and endocytosed cargo was similarly disrupted by BoNT E expression as was an endosomal SNARE complex comprised of SNAP25/syntaxin 13/vesicle-associated membrane protein 2. The small-interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of SNAP25 exerted effects similar to those of BoNT E expression. Our results indicate that SNAP25 has a second function as an endosomal Q-SNARE in trafficking from the sorting endosome to the recycling endosome and that BoNT E has effects linked to disruption of the endosome recycling pathway.

Download full-text


Available from: Thomas F J Martin, Jun 20, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Botulinum toxin inhibits acetylcholine (ACh) release and probably blocks some nociceptive neurotransmitters. It has been suggested that the development of myofascial trigger points (MTrP) is related to an excess release of ACh to increase the number of sensitized nociceptors. Although the use of botulinum toxin to treat myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) has been investigated in many clinical trials, the results are contradictory. The objective of this paper is to identify sources of variability that could explain these differences in the results. Material and Methods. We performed a content analysis of the clinical trials and systematic reviews of MPS. Results and Discussion. Sources of differences in studies were found in the diagnostic and selection criteria, the muscles injected, the injection technique, the number of trigger points injected, the dosage of botulinum toxin used, treatments for control group, outcome measures, and duration of followup. The contradictory results regarding the efficacy of botulinum toxin A in MPS associated with neck and back pain do not allow this treatment to be recommended or rejected. There is evidence that botulinum toxin could be useful in specific myofascial regions such as piriformis syndrome. It could also be useful in patients with refractory MPS that has not responded to other myofascial injection therapies.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 02/2013; 2013:381459. DOI:10.1155/2013/381459 · 2.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cellular remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM), an essential component of many physiological and pathological processes, is dependent on the trafficking and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Soluble NSF attachment protein receptor (SNARE)-mediated membrane traffic has documented roles in cell-ECM interactions and the present study specifically examines SNARE function in the trafficking of MMPs during ECM degradation. Using the invasive human fibrosarcoma cell line HT-1080, we demonstrate that a plasma membrane SNARE, SNAP23, and an endosomal v-SNARE, VAMP3 (also known as cellubrevin), partly colocalize with MMP2 and MMP9, and that inhibition of these SNAREs using dominant-negative SNARE mutants impaired secretion of the MMPs. Inhibition of VAMP3, SNAP23 or syntaxin-13 using dominant-negative SNARES, RNA interference or tetanus toxin impaired trafficking of membrane type 1 MMP to the cell surface. Consistent with these observations, we found that blocking the function of these SNAREs reduced the ability of HT-1080 cells to degrade a gelatin substrate in situ and impaired invasion of HT-1080 cells in vitro. The results reveal the importance of VAMP3, syntaxin-13 and SNAP23 in the trafficking of MMP during degradation of ECM substrates and subsequent cellular invasion.
    Journal of Cell Science 11/2009; 122(Pt 22):4089-98. DOI:10.1242/jcs.052761 · 5.33 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein S-acylation, the only fully reversible posttranslational lipid modification of proteins, is emerging as a ubiquitous mechanism to control the properties and function of a diverse array of proteins and consequently physiological processes. S-acylation results from the enzymatic addition of long-chain lipids, most typically palmitate, onto intracellular cysteine residues of soluble and transmembrane proteins via a labile thioester linkage. Addition of lipid results in increases in protein hydrophobicity that can impact on protein structure, assembly, maturation, trafficking, and function. The recent explosion in global S-acylation (palmitoyl) proteomic profiling as a result of improved biochemical tools to assay S-acylation, in conjunction with the recent identification of enzymes that control protein S-acylation and de-acylation, has opened a new vista into the physiological function of S-acylation. This review introduces key features of S-acylation and tools to interrogate this process, and highlights the eclectic array of proteins regulated including membrane receptors, ion channels and transporters, enzymes and kinases, signaling adapters and chaperones, cell adhesion, and structural proteins. We highlight recent findings correlating disruption of S-acylation to pathophysiology and disease and discuss some of the major challenges and opportunities in this rapidly expanding field. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
    Physiological Reviews 04/2015; 95(2):341-376. DOI:10.1152/physrev.00032.2014 · 29.04 Impact Factor