Article

Intentional unsafe sex (barebacking) among HIV-positive gay men who seek sexual partners on the internet

New York University, Department of Applied Psychology, New York, NY 10003, USA.
AIDS Care (Impact Factor: 1.6). 07/2003; 15(3):367-78. DOI: 10.1080/0954012031000105423
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT While unsafe sex has been reported throughout the HIV epidemic, the underlying assumption has been that most persons do not seek to purposely ham unprotected sex. Within the gay community, the term 'barebacking' has emerged to refer to intentional unsafe anal sex. The prevalence of barebacking is evidenced among gay men, particularly those who are HIV-positive, by the number of internet sites devoted to barebacking and the number of men seeking sexual partners through the use of the internet. To gain insight into barebacking, a sample of 112 HIV-positive gay men were recruited from internet sites where men seek to meet each other for sex. The major it of participants (84%)reported engaging in barebacking in the past three months, and 43% of the men reported recent bareback sex with a partner of unknown serostatus. These results indicate the potential for widespread transmission of HIV to uninfected men by the partners they meet on the internet. Analyses revealed that men who reported bareback sex only with HIV-positive partners scored lower in sexual adventurism than those who had bareback sex regardless of partner serostatus. A significant correlation was observed between defining masculinity as sexual prowess and intentional unprotected anal sex. There are serious implications for HIV prevention efforts, in that internet-based education should be a priority in order to reach men who rely on this mechanism to find sexual partners.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Jeffrey T Parsons, May 20, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
134 Views
  • Source
    • "Finally, there is a great deal of attention, fear and avoidance in the gay community surrounding the reduced disclosure of HIV status to one's sexual partners, which may result in a greater likelihood of serodiscordant sexual partners (Poindexter & Shippy, 2010). This is a bidirectional relationship, however, with both HIV-negative and HIV-positive men inferring that a lack of discussion and willingness to participate in condomless intercourse implies seroconcordance; this is a phenomenon identified by early studies of HIV and gay and bisexual men (Gold & Skinner, 1993; Halkitis & Parsons, 2003; Parsons et al., 2005, 2006; Suarez & Miller, 2001). This pattern of assumptions has been highly stable throughout the history of the pandemic, and does not appear to have shifted over time. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: HIV-related stigma is a major driver of poor prognosis for the treatment and reduced spread of HIV. The present article provides a qualitative analysis surrounding various themes related to stigma and shame as a result HIV Design: Eight gay men recruited from a community HIV clinic contacted the researchers in response to a study involving participation in a structured, 8-week group intervention for HIV-related stigma. Following this group, three men took part in open-ended interviews about their thoughts and experiences. Methods: IPA (interpretative phenomenological analysis) was used to examine the participants' experiences surrounding shame and stigma related to living with HIV. Results: Three superordinate themes were identified: social support and the disclosure of serostatus, stigma associated with serosorting, and attempts to negotiate a spoiled identity. Conclusion: In San Francisco, a city with a great deal of acceptance surrounding HIV and a large, politically active community of persons living with HIV, gay men continue to struggle with disclosure and stigma. This stigma may be an unexpected result of a high degree of HIV-testing and attempts by both HIV-positive and negative gay men to practice serosorting.
    Psychology & Health 12/2013; DOI:10.1080/08870446.2013.871283 · 1.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "According to a longitudinal study that reported a positive Nattrass association between practicing unsafe sex and HIV optimism, the rise in unsafe sex over time was unrelated to such attitudes and thus could not be explained by them (Elford, Bolding & Sherr, 2002, p. 1542). The rise in unsafe sex may be a consequence of factors other than the availability of HAART — factors such as the replenishment of individuals who enjoy unsafe sex in the population (Boily, Godin Hogben, Sherr & Bastos, 2005), increasing use of 'poppers' (Cox, Beauchemin & Allard, 2004), the rise of Internet dating (Elford et al., 2002; Halkitis & Parsons, 2003), broader changes in sexual culture towards less open discussion of HIV (Morin, Vernon, Harcourt, Steward, Volk, Riess, Neilands, McLaughlin & Coates, 2003) and safe-sex fatigue (Sepkowitz, 2000; Cox et al., 2004). If the rise in new HIV infections is unrelated to HAART, then rolling out HAART to more people will reduce the number of new infections (Blower et al., 2000). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This paper shows how two publicly available epidemiological modelling packages, namely the Spectrum AIDS Impact Model and the ASSA2003 AIDS and Demographic Model, predict very different impacts from rolling out highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) on new HIV infections. Using South Africa as a case study, it shows that the ASSA2003 model predicts a significant drop in new HIV infections as HAART is rolled out, whereas the Spectrum model assumes that HAART does not have a preventative impact (and in fact generates a small increase in new HIV infections). Users will thus draw different conclusions about the public health benefits of HAART depending on which modelling package they use. Despite being presented as a policy-oriented modelling tool capable of exploring 'what if' questions about the impact of different policy choices, the Spectrum model is illequipped to do so with regard to a HAART rollout. Unlike Spectrum, ASSA2003 is more flexible and its assumptions are clear. Better modelling and more information (including about the relationship between HAART and sexual risk behaviour) is required to develop appropriate public-policy modelling for the HAART era.
    African Journal of AIDS Research 11/2009; August 2007(2-Vol. 6):129-137. DOI:10.2989/16085900709490407 · 0.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "In another study (Bull, McFarlane, Lloyd, & Rietmeijer, 2004), among men actively using the Internet as a means of locating potential sex partners, 97% reported actually having met someone online for sex, and 86% said that they used Internet MSM sex sites at least once a week to identify possible partners. Halkitis et al. (2003) cited Internet Websites and chat rooms as key sources that are partly responsible for the upsurge of unprotected sexual activities that they have observed among gay and bisexual men in the New York City area. Another study examining the role that Internet usage plays with regard to HIV risk taking found that persons who had a history of meeting sex partners via the Internet reported more frequent involvement in risky sexual behaviors than persons who had not met sex partners online (Mustanski, 2007). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Men who have sex with men (MSM) account for the largest number of persons diagnosed with AIDS in the United States, with higher-than-average rates of drug use and unprotected sex being cited as the principal reasons underlying their high rates of HIV infection. Recent evidence has suggested that the use of Websites specifically designed to promote unsafe sexual practices (e.g., Bareback.com, BarebackRT.com, Bare4ever.com) may be particularly common among MSM, thereby fostering their risky behaviors.In light of these findings, the present study, which compares HIV risk behaviors sought by self-identified gay and bisexual men, is based on a content analysis of 1,316 ads/profiles posted on one of the most popular men who have sex with other men (MSM) Websites (namely, Bareback.com) that specifically fosters unprotected sex. Ads/profiles were selected randomly based on the American ZIP code of residence. Data were collected between September 2006 and January 2007.Rates of advertised-for high-risk sexual behaviors were very high for gay and bisexual men alike, particularly for oral sex involving ejaculation into the mouth, anal sex involving ejaculation into the anus, multiple partner sex, and felching (i.e., eating ejaculatory fluid out of an anus into which at least one person previously ejaculated). Analytical comparisons of gay and bisexual men showed that, on various dimensions, the bisexual men in this sample had either similar or lower levels of sexual risk compared to the gay men. The HIV intervention-related implications of these findings are discussed.
    Journal of Bisexuality 04/2009; 9(2-2):125-140. DOI:10.1080/15299710902881533
Show more