Emotional/behavioral, social correlates and one-year predictors of frequent pains among early adolescents: Influences of pain characteristics

Department of Neuroscience, Regional Centre for Child & Adolescent Mental Health, The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), NO-7489 Trondheim, Norway.
European Journal of Pain (Impact Factor: 2.93). 02/2007; 11(1):57-65. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpain.2005.12.014
Source: PubMed


In a one-year longitudinal study, emotional/behavioural correlates and predictors of four common pain complaints (headaches, stomach, back and limb pain), were examined in a representative school sample of 2360 adolescents aged 12- to 15-years. At first assessment, 18.3% reported being bothered by a frequent pain (at least once a week) and 40% of the pain sufferers had two or more pain locations, more commonly reported by girls. Subjects having any of the four frequent pains reported having fewer friends and were more often absent from school. Frequency and number of reported pains among adolescents were positively related to levels of internalising and externalising problems. These latter problems were consistently and significantly higher among adolescents with frequent back and limb pains, however, when coexistence of another frequent pain was controlled, differences were small. Number of pains at the one-year follow-up was significantly predicted by frequent back pain and headache, depressive symptoms scores, somatic complaints (other than pain), number of friends and reduced leisure time activities during the follow-up period. Frequent back pain and depressive symptoms also predicted multiple frequent pains (vs single frequent pain) at the follow-up as did recent parental divorce. It is concluded that various emotional and behavioural problems, and which are commonly regarded as being specifically related to pain type or location among adolescents, depend rather on frequency and coexistence of multiple frequent pains. Assessment of adolescents with frequent and multiple pains should, therefore, include broad screening of internalising as well as externalising problems as well as various aspects of impairment.

Download full-text


Available from: Anne Mari Sund, Aug 31, 2015
  • Source
    • "Many adolescents with recurrent pain have other co-existing health complaints, which may have combined negative effects on their physical and emotional functioning (Härmä et al., 2002; Ghandour et al., 2004; Larsson and Sund, 2007; Sundblad et al., 2007; Hjern et al., 2008; Stanford et al., 2008; Hoftun et al., 2012). Effective pain management is therefore an important issue in adolescence. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background There is considerable variation in adolescent pain prevalence across epidemiological studies, with limited information on pain-related behaviours among adolescents, including medicine use. The aims of this study were (1) to examine the prevalence of recurrent pain among 15-year-old adolescents internationally; (2) to investigate the association between recurrent pain and medicine use behaviours among boys and girls; and (3) to evaluate the consistency of these associations across countries.Methods The World Health Organization (WHO) collaborative international Health Behaviour in School-aged Children 2009/2010 study collects data about self-reported aches and medicine use from 36,762 15-year-old adolescents from 22 countries/regions in Europe and the United States. Multi-level multivariate logistic regression, stratified by gender, was used to analyse the association between recurrent pain and medicine use for headache, stomachache, nervousness and difficulties in getting to sleep.ResultsMore than 30% of adolescents reported recurrent headache, almost 30% recurrent backache and approximately 20% recurrent stomachache. Although pain prevalence and medicine use for aches were much higher for girls, the association between pain and medicine use was similarly strong for both genders. Adolescents with recurrent pain are more likely to use medicines also for non-corresponding pain, nervousness and difficulties in getting to sleep. The association between recurrent pain and medicine use was consistent across countries despite large-country differences in the prevalence of recurrent pain and medicine use.Conclusions Recurrent pain in adolescence is common cross-nationally. Adolescents with recurrent pain are more likely to use medicine in general. Recurrent pain and medicine use should be addressed in adolescent health policies.
    European journal of pain (London, England) 01/2015; 19(1):77-84. DOI:10.1002/ejp.524 · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "" responding 1 = yes or 0 = no. This item was developed for the Youth and Mental Health Study (Larsson & Sund, 2007). Legal drugs use: Participants were asked: " Do you use any legal drugs now? " responding 1 = yes or 0 = no. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim was to examine prospectively associations between bullying involvement at 14–15 years of age and self-reported general health and psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood, at 26–27 years of age. A large representative sample (N = 2,464) was recruited and assessed in two counties in Mid-Norway in 1998 (T1) and 1999/2000 (T2) when the respondents had a mean age of 13.7 and 14.9, respectively, leading to classification as being bullied, bully-victim, being aggressive toward others or non-involved. Information about general health and psychosocial adjustment was gathered at a follow-up in 2012 (T4) (N = 1,266) with a respondent mean age of 27.2. Logistic regression and ANOVA analyses showed that groups involved in bullying of any type in adolescence had increased risk for lower education as young adults compared to those non-involved. The group aggressive toward others also had a higher risk of being unemployed and receiving any kind of social help. Compared with the non-involved, those being bullied and bully-victims had increased risk of poor general health and high levels of pain. Bully-victims and those aggressive toward others during adolescence subsequently had increased risk of tobacco use and lower job functioning than non-involved. Further, those being bullied and aggressive toward others had increased risk of illegal drug use. Relations to live-in spouse/partner were poorer among those being bullied. Involvement in bullying, either as victim or perpetrator, has significant social costs even 12 years after the bullying experience. Accordingly, it will be important to provide early intervention for those involved in bullying in adolescence.
    Child Abuse & Neglect 10/2014; 38(10). DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.06.001 · 2.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Condition Parameters, Internalizing, and Social 719 (Palermo, 2000), and more specifically on youth with SB (Larsson & Sund, 2007), have noted that research examining the influence of pain characteristics on social competence is an essential area of research (Figure 1, Path C). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To test a model of social competence in youth with spina bifida (SB). Involvement in social activities was expected to mediate associations between SB-related condition parameters (pain, body mass index, and motor function) and social competence. Internalizing symptoms were predicted to amplify the negative impact of condition parameters on social activity involvement. Methods: 108 youth with SB, their caregivers, peers, and teachers participated in a multimethod study that included cognitive testing, questionnaires, and observational interaction tasks. Results: Social activity involvement partially mediated the relation between pain and lower social competence. Internalizing symptoms had a significant indirect effect on social competence via decreased involvement in social activities. Conclusions: Pain and internalizing symptoms interfere with social activity involvement, which is, in turn, important for social competence development in youth with SB. Assessing and treating these condition parameters and activity factors may be important areas of focus in clinical practice and research with these youth.
    Journal of Pediatric Psychology 06/2014; DOI:10.1093/jpepsy/jsu036 · 2.91 Impact Factor
Show more