Contrast-enhanced, high-resolution, susceptibility-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the brain: dose-dependent optimization at 3 tesla and 1.5 tesla in healthy volunteers.
ABSTRACT We sought to determine the optimal dose of a contrast agent with known high relaxivity on 1.5 and 3 Tesla scanners that would achieve the best compromise between image quality and scan time for the clinical application of contrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging (CE-SWI).
Pre- and postcontrast SWI was performed with different contrast agent doses (0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine) at both 1.5 and 3 T in 6 healthy volunteers, resulting in 72 examinations. Venograms were created from minimum intensity projection reconstructions over specified deep white matter volumes to enhance the visual appearance of connected venous structures. Three independent radiologists blindly rated the visibility of the veins on a continuous scale of 1 to 10. A general linear model was used for statistical evaluation, with fixed effects of the contrast agent dose, the field strength, the rater and the patients as a random effect.
With CE-SWI, we found significant differences in the visibility of the deep veins dependent on the contrast media dose (P=0.02). At 3 T, the visibility of deep venous vessels, with regard to susceptibility effect, image quality, and scan time reduction after a standard contrast agent dose 0.1 mmol/kg was significantly better than that achieved with 0.05 mmol/kg. The visibility was considered equal with 0.1 mmol/kg of the contrast agent to the precontrast images and a dose of 0.2 mmol/kg. At 1.5 T, no significant difference was found between the 4 contrast agent doses. We found no difference in the visibility of the veins with the shorter sequences at 3 T compared with the sequences at 1.5 T.
Only a standard dose (0.1 mmol/kg) of gadobenate dimeglumine is required to achieve the optimum susceptibility effect and image quality at 3 T, together with a reduced scan time. This result can be attributed to the higher relaxivity of gadobenate dimeglumine, compared with conventional gadolinium chelates.
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ABSTRACT: The diagnostic efficacy of gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd BOPTA) was compared with that of gadodiamide (Gd DTPA-BMA) in patients with primary malignant tumors or metastases of the brain. A subset of patients was evaluated from the 410 enrolled in the United States in phase III central nervous system clinical trials with gadobenate dimeglumine. From these trials, there were 82 patients with intraaxial malignant neoplasms of the brain, the focus of the current study. Patients were randomized to one of three incremental dosing regimens. Imaging with gadodiamide at doses of 0.1 and 0.3 mmol/kg was compared with gadobenate dimeglumine at doses of 0.05 and 0.15 mmol/kg and at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 mmol/kg. The on-site physician, patient, and all off-site reviewers were blinded to the agent injected and the administered dose. Scans were obtained before contrast administration and within 5 minutes after administration of each dose. The two contrast injections in any one patient were separated by 15 minutes. An independent laboratory performed signal intensity measurements. The magnetic resonance (MR) films were evaluated for level of diagnostic information, number of lesions detected, and confidence in MR imaging diagnosis by two independent board-certified neuroradiologists unaffiliated with any study site. The lesion-to-brain signal intensity ratio after a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine was higher than that after a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg gadodiamide, with this result statistically significant (P = 0.02). After the second dose of contrast, results were comparable in all three groups. The level of diagnostic information contained on the MR films increased significantly for all three groups from pre- to postcontrast for both the first and second administered doses. In between-group comparisons, the level of diagnostic information was similar after the first contrast dose for all three dosing regimens. This was also true after the second contrast dose. For all three groups, the number of lesions detected increased significantly postdose (whether first or second). Confidence in MR diagnosis increased from predose to postdose for all three groups, with no statistically significant difference between groups. Gadobenate dimeglumine, used at slightly lower doses, is comparable to gadodiamide in terms of efficacy in imaging of malignant intraaxial brain lesions. As with other gadolinium chelates, higher doses (0.15 and 0.2 mmol/kg) of gadobenate dimeglumine offer greater diagnostic information.Investigative Radiology 06/2002; 37(5):269-80. · 5.46 Impact Factor
Article: Proton relaxation enhancement.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Paramagnetic and superparamagnetic substances are used as contrast agents to enhance proton relaxation in magnetic resonance imaging. This review summarizes the physics of contrast agents, specifically the mechanisms by which contrast agents enhance T1 and T2 relaxation. The purpose is to provide a background for understanding the behavior of existing contrast agents in basic experimental and clinical studies. Terms such as magnetic dipole, dipole moment, magnetic susceptibility, diamagnetism, paramagnetism, superparamagnetism, and ferromagnetism are introduced. Two important interactions between the magnetic dipole moments of paramagnetic substances and the dipole moments associated with protons are described. The Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan equations and other basic relaxation theory that has been confirmed experimentally are introduced to account for the dependence of relaxation on such parameters as the Larmor frequency, magnetic moment, accessibility of water molecules to the core of a contrast agent, and frequency of molecular motions.Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 01/1993; 3(1):149-56. · 2.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the visualization of small venous vessels in the normal human brain at a field strength of 3 Tesla. T2*-weighted, three-dimensional gradient-echo images were acquired by exploiting the magnetic susceptibility difference between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the vasculature and microvasculature. The spatial resolution was 0.5 x 0.5 x 1 mm3, and sequence parameters were varied to obtain good vessel delineation. Improved visibility of venous vessels was obtained by creating phase mask images from the magnetic resonance phase images and multiplying these by the magnitude images. Venograms were created by performing a minimum intensity projection over targeted volumes. Highly detailed visualization of venous structures deep in the brain and in the superficial cortical areas were obtained without administration of an exogenous contrast agent; compared with similar studies performed at 1.5 T, the echo time could be reduced from typically 40-50 ms to 17-28 ms. Imaging at high-field strength offers the possibility of improved resolution and the delineation of smaller vessels compared with lower field strengths.Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography 01/2000; 24(6):949-57. · 1.58 Impact Factor