Intellectual decline in schizophrenia: evidence from a prospective birth cohort 28 year follow-up study.
ABSTRACT It is well established that IQ is lower among persons with schizophrenia than in the general population. However, it remains unclear if there is deterioration beyond a premorbid deficit. In order to assess the question of IQ deterioration, we assessed persons pre- and-post psychosis, comparing those who developed schizophrenia with those who did not. Twenty six patients with schizophrenia and 59 normal controls, evaluated at age 7 in the prospective, longitudinal, National Collaborative Perinatal Project (NCPP), were re-tested approximately 28 years later. We assessed change in an estimate of IQ based on the Vocabulary and Block Design tests from the Wechsler intelligence scales. Persons who later developed schizophrenia were significantly impaired on IQ compared to controls at age 7, especially on measures of attention. At age 35, persons with schizophrenia demonstrated significant impairment and deterioration on both IQ sub-tests compared to controls. Because impairment occurs by early childhood and subsequent deterioration occurs at an unknown period, designs with more frequent assessment of IQ through the premorbid, prodromal and early phases of illness are required to identify the key period of decline. Future research on this sample will evaluate the prospective roles of family history and perinatal complications on cognition, and assess the specificity of these findings.
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ABSTRACT: Data suggest that individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) and superior intelligence can present without specific neurocognitive deficits. However, neurocognitive decrements, defined as worse cognition than expected, have been reported in practically all SZ cases. This study investigated if neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ by comparing the neuropsychological profile of SZ cases with IQ-matched healthy controls (HC) across intellectual levels. Participants with SZ and HCs were stratified into three IQ-groups; intellectually low (IQ 80-95; SZ n = 65 and HC n = 13), intellectually normal (IQ = 100-115; SZ n = 111 and HC n = 115), and intellectually superior (IQ ≥ 120; SZ n = 20 and HC n = 50). A repeated measures multivariate analysis of co-variance compared performance on eight selected neuropsychological tests across IQ-strata and diagnostic group. Differences in clinical characteristics and social functioning in SZ across IQ-strata were investigated with multivariate and univariate analyses of variance. Intellectually superior SZ participants scored within normal limits, but had neurocognitive decrements compared to superior HCs. Decrements were of the same magnitude as in the low and normal IQ-strata. Levels of functional impairments and clinical characteristics in participants with SZ did not differ significantly across IQ-strata. Results indicate that neurocognitive decrements are present in intellectually superior SZ to the same extent as in intellectually low and intellectually normal SZ, supporting the notion that SZ is a neurocognitive disorder. Similar levels of social functional deficits and clinical symptoms suggest similar disease processes in SZ across intellectual level.Frontiers in Psychiatry 05/2014; 5:45. DOI:10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00045
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ABSTRACT: Impairments in cognitive control are a defining feature of schizophrenia. Aspects of cognitive control include proactive control-the maintenance of task rules or goals to bias attention and maintain preparedness-and reactive control-the engagement of attention in reaction to changing cognitive demands. Proactive control is thought to be particularly impaired in schizophrenia. We sought to examine proactive and reactive control in schizophrenia, as measured by reaction time (RT) variability, and especially long RTs, which are thought to represent lapses in proactive control, during the Stroop paradigm. Furthermore, we sought to examine the neural underpinnings of lapses in proactive control and the subsequent engagement of reactive control in those with schizophrenia, as compared to healthy controls, using fMRI. We found that patients with schizophrenia displayed greater RT variability and more extremely long RTs than controls suggesting that proactive control was weaker in the schizophrenia than in the control group. All of the subjects engaged regions of the cognitive control network during long RTs, consistent with an engagement of reactive control following a failure in proactive control on these trials. The schizophrenia group, however, displayed significantly diminished activity in these regions relative to controls. Our results suggest increased failures in proactive control, but also impaired reactive control, in schizophrenia as compared to healthy subjects.Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 03/2014; DOI:10.3758/s13415-014-0252-4 · 3.21 Impact Factor