Bushmeat hunting, deforestation, and prediction of zoonoses emergence.
ABSTRACT Understanding the emergence of new zoonotic agents requires knowledge of pathogen biodiversity in wildlife, human-wildlife interactions, anthropogenic pressures on wildlife populations, and changes in society and human behavior. We discuss an interdisciplinary approach combining virology, wildlife biology, disease ecology, and anthropology that enables better understanding of how deforestation and associated hunting leads to the emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens.
- SourceAvailable from: Amy Pedersen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In natural systems, host species are often co-infected by multiple pathogen species, and recent work has suggested that many pathogens can infect a wide range of host species. An important question therefore is what determines the host range of a pathogen and the community of pathogens found within a given host species. Using primates as a model, we show that infectious diseases are more often shared between species that are closely related and inhabit the same geographical region. We find that host relatedness is the best overall predictor of whether two host species share the same pathogens. A higher frequency of pathogen host shifts between close relatives or inheritance of pathogens from a common ancestor may explain this result. For viruses, geographical overlap among neighbouring primate hosts is more important in determining host range. We suggest this is because rapid evolution within viral lineages allows host jumps across larger evolutionary distances. We also show that the phylogenetic pattern of pathogen sharing with humans is the same as that between wild primates. For humans, this means we share a higher proportion of pathogens with the great apes, including chimpanzees and gorillas, because these species are our closest relatives.Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 08/2008; 275(1643):1695-701. DOI:10.1098/rspb.2008.0284 · 5.29 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the New World simian foamy virus (FV) from spider monkey (SFVspm). Starting from a conserved region in the integrase (IN) domain of the pol gene we cloned fragments of the genome up to the 5' end of the long terminal repeat (LTR) into plasmid vectors and elucidated their nucleotide sequence. The 3' end of the genome was determined by direct nucleotide sequencing of PCR products. Each nucleotide of the genome was determined at least two times from both strands. All protein motifs described to be conserved among primate FVs were found in SFVspm. At both the nucleotide and protein levels SFVspm is the most divergent primate FV described to date, reflecting the long-term phylogenetic separation between Old World and New World primate host species (Catarrhini and Platyrrhini, respectively). The molecular probes developed for SFVspm will allow the investigation of trans-species transmissions of this New World foamy virus to humans by serological assays.Virology 01/2008; 369(1):191-7. DOI:10.1016/j.virol.2007.07.018 · 3.28 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background/Question/Methods The effect of non-reservoir host species, which occur intermittently over time, on pathogen prevalence among a reservoir species is poorly understood. We investigated whether voles, Microtus spp., which occur intermittently, influenced infection prevalence of Sin Nombre hantavirus (SNV, Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus) in deer mice, Peromyscus maniculatus, whose populations are persistent. We considered whether infection prevalence among deer mice was proportional or independent of vole density (density-dependent or density-independent respectively). We used 14 years of data from central Montana to investigate this relationship. We considered a number of possible caveats which could influence interpretation of a relationship between voles and infection prevalence among deer mice: delayed-density-dependent transmission within deer mice, seasonal fluctuations in vole and deer mouse abundance and deer mouse infection prevalence, correlations between vole and deer mouse populations, and density-dependent transmission within deer mice. Results/Conclusions By partitioning deer mouse abundance into low, medium and high abundance categories and analyzing density-dependent and density-independent relationships between voles and infection prevalence of deer mice within these categories, we overcame these possible caveats in the low and medium deer mouse abundance categories. There were significant reductions (47-90%) in hantavirus infection prevalence among deer mice when voles were present at the lowest deer mouse abundance category. This relationship was independent of vole density. A number of studies have documented that spatial variability in host diversity is associated with reductions in pathogen prevalence by a hypothesized “dilution effect”. We suggest a “dilution effect” may also occur where host diversity fluctuates temporally. Preservation of host species diversity and optimization of environmental conditions which promote occurrence of ephemeral species, such as voles, may result in a decrease in infection prevalence of a hantavirus in reservoir hosts. Our results may extend to other zoonotic infectious diseases.94th ESA Annual Convention 2009; 08/2009