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Adult mice lacking the p53/p63 target gene Perp are not predisposed to spontaneous tumorigenesis but display features of ectodermal dysplasia syndromes.

Cell Death and Differentiation (Impact Factor: 8.39). 10/2006; 13(9):1614-8. DOI: 10.1038/sj.cdd.4401871
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    ABSTRACT: Teraspanin transmembrane protein, Perp (P53 apoptosis effector related to PMP22), which is found in the plasma membrane as a component of the desmosome, is reported to be involved in the morphogenesis of the epithelium and the enamel formation of the incisor. However, its expression pattern and signaling regulation during molar development have not been elucidated in detail. We have examined the precise expression patterns of Perp in developing lower molars and employed the knock-down of Perp by antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment during in vitro organ cultivation at embryonic day 13 to define the precise developmental function of Perp. Perp was expressed mainly in the dental lamina and stellate reticulum regions at the bud and cap stages. After Perp knock-down, the tooth germ showed disruption of the dental lamina and stellate reticulum with altered apoptosis and proliferation. The changed expression levels of related signaling molecules from the enamel knot and desmosome were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A renal capsule transplantation method was employed to examine the effects of Perp knock-down on molar crown development. Ultrastructural observations revealed that enamel was deposited more densely in an irregular pattern in the cusp region, and that dentin was hypo-mineralized after Perp knock-down at the cap stage. Thus, Perp might play important roles in the formation and integration of stellate reticulum, dental lamina structure and enamel formation through signaling interactions with the enamel knot and desmosome-related signaling molecules at the cap stage of lower molar development.
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    ABSTRACT: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is an inherited cardiomyopathy characterized by fibro-fatty replacement of the right ventricle and ventricular arrhythmias. The major disease-causing genes encode cardiac desmosomal components but are involved in only ∼50% of patients. To identify the missing genetic determinants, we used a candidate gene approach, focusing on the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the main ARVC/D gene PKP2 and on additional genes involved in desmosomal structure or function.METHODS AND RESULTS: We screened a population of 64 ARVC/D probands with no identified mutations in any of the five known desmosomal genes (PKP2, DSG2, DSP, DSC2, and JUP). No putative mutation was identified in the 3'-UTR of PKP2 or in PNN, CTNNA3, CAV1, or PLN coding sequences. In a single proband, we identified two rare heterozygous missense variants affecting evolutionary conserved residues: c.175G>A (p.Gly59Arg) in PERP and c.1811A>G (p.Asp604Gly) in PKP4 (minor allele frequency <0.5% in control population).CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that mutations in the candidate genes studied and regulation of PKP2 mRNA via 3'-UTR dependent mechanisms are unlikely to be major causes of ARVC/D in the studied population. Additional studies are needed to investigate the putative effects of rare PKP4 and PERP variants in this disease.
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    ABSTRACT: p53 is a crucial tumour suppressor that responds to diverse stress signals by orchestrating specific cellular responses, including transient cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence and apoptosis, which are all processes associated with tumour suppression. However, recent studies have challenged the relative importance of these canonical cellular responses for p53-mediated tumour suppression and have highlighted roles for p53 in modulating other cellular processes, including metabolism, stem cell maintenance, invasion and metastasis, as well as communication within the tumour microenvironment. In this Opinion article, we discuss the roles of classical p53 functions, as well as emerging p53-regulated processes, in tumour suppression.
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