An introductory review of cell mechanobiology.

MechanoBiology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 210 Lothrop St. BST, E1640, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.
Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology (Impact Factor: 3.25). 04/2006; 5(1):1-16. DOI: 10.1007/s10237-005-0012-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Mechanical loads induce changes in the structure, composition, and function of living tissues. Cells in tissues are responsible for these changes, which cause physiological or pathological alterations in the extracellular matrix (ECM). This article provides an introductory review of the mechanobiology of load-sensitive cells in vivo, which include fibroblasts, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. Many studies have shown that mechanical loads affect diverse cellular functions, such as cell proliferation, ECM gene and protein expression, and the production of soluble factors. Major cellular components involved in the mechanotransduction mechanisms include the cytoskeleton, integrins, G proteins, receptor tyrosine kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and stretch-activated ion channels. Future research in the area of cell mechanobiology will require novel experimental and theoretical methodologies to determine the type and magnitude of the forces experienced at the cellular and sub-cellular levels and to identify the force sensors/receptors that initiate the cascade of cellular and molecular events.

Download full-text


Available from: James Wang, Feb 05, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have shown promising potential in the field of regenerative medicine particularly in vascular tissue engineering. Optimal growing of MSCs into specific lineage requires a thorough understanding of the role of mechanobiology in MSC metabolism. Although effects of external physical cues (mechanical stimuli through external loading and scaffold properties) on regulation of MSC differentiation into Smooth muscle (SM) lineage have attracted widespread attention, fewer studies are available on mechanical characterization of single engineered MSCs which is vital in tissue development through proper mechanotransductive cell–environment interactions. In this study, we investigated effects of uniaxial tensile strain and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) stimulations on mechanical properties of engineered MSCs and their F-actin cytoskeleton organization. Micropipette aspiration technique was used to measure mechanical properties of MSCs including mean Young׳s modulus (E) and the parameters of standard linear viscoelastic model. Compared to control samples, MSCs treated by uniaxial strain either with or without TGF-β1 indicated significant increases in E value and considerable drop in creep compliance curve, while samples treated by TGF-β1 alone met significant decreases in E value and considerable rise in creep compliance curve. Among treated samples, uniaxial tensile strain accompanied by TGF-β1 stimulation not only caused higher stimulation in MSC differentiation towards SM phenotype at transcriptional level, but also created more structural integrity in MSCs due to formation of thick bundled F-actin fibers. Results can be applied in engineering of MSCs towards functional target cells and consequently tissue development.
    Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 03/2015; 43. DOI:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2014.12.013 · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alternative strategies are required when autograft tissue is not sufficient or available to reconstruct damaged tendons. Electrospun fibre yams could provide such an alternative. This study investigates the seeding of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) on electrospun yarns and their response when subjected to dynamic tensile loading. Cell seeded yams sustained 3600 cycles per day for 21 days. Loaded yams demonstrated a thickened cell layer around the scaffold's exterior compared to statically cultured yams, which would suggest an increased rate of cell proliferation and/or matrix deposition, whilst maintaining a predominant uniaxial cell orientation. Tensile properties of cell-seeded yams increased with time compared to acellular yams. Loaded scaffolds demonstrated an up-regulation in several key tendon genes, including collagen Type I. This study demonstrates the support of hMSCs on electrospun yams and their differentiation towards a tendon lineage when mechanically stimulated. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 11/2014; 39. DOI:10.1016/j.jmbbm.2014.07.009 · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanical induction of cell differentiation is well known. However, the effect of mechanical compression on odontoblastic differentiation remains to be elucidated. Thus, we first determined the optimal conditions for the induction of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) into odontoblastic differentiation in response to mechanical compression of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with dentinal tubule-like pores. The odontoblastic differentiation was evaluated by gene expression and confocal laser microscopy. The optimal conditions, which were: cell density, 4.0 × 10(5) cells/cm(2) ; compression magnitude, 19.6 kPa; and loading time, 9 h, significantly increased expression of the odontoblast-specific markers dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and enamelysin and enhanced the elongation of cellular processes into the pores of the membrane, a typical morphological feature of odontoblasts. In addition, upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7) and wingless-type MMTV integration site family member 10a (Wnt10a) was observed. Moreover, the phosphorylation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 were also enhanced by mechanical compression, indicating the involvement of the MAPK signalling pathway. It is noteworthy that human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow and amnion also differentiated into odontoblasts in response to the optimal mechanical compression, demonstrating the importance of the physical structure of the scaffold in odontoblastic differentiation. Thus, odontoblastic differentiation of hDPSCs is promoted by optimal mechanical compression through the MAPK signalling pathway and expression of the BMP7 and Wnt10a genes. The 3D biomimetic scaffolds with dentinal tubule-like pores were critical for the odontoblastic differentiation of MSCs induced by mechanical compression. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 07/2014; DOI:10.1002/term.1928 · 4.43 Impact Factor