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Available from: Michael E Engel, Apr 25, 2015

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Article: Matched unrelated bone marrow transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning for leukocyte adhesion deficiency

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    ABSTRACT: To review indications and outcomes of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in primary immunodeficiencies, in light of recent advances in the field. Remarkable improvements in the outcome of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in primary immunodeficiencies have recently been reported. This is a result of the successful use of alternative donors and more effective strategies to prevent and treat complications. These advances have now permitted the indications for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation to be extended in primary immunodeficiencies. The optimal results of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in primary immunodeficiencies have long been obtained with related human leukocyte antigen-identical donors, an option limited to a minority of patients. Transplantation from mismatched related donors has been used with good results mainly in infants with severe combined immune deficiency, but has been associated with significantly delayed or incomplete immune reconstitution. Recent data indicate that transplantation from matched unrelated donors and cord blood transplantation represent valid alternatives, which can be used in all forms of severe primary immunodeficiencies. This, along with careful monitoring of infections, coupled with preemptive treatment, has resulted in a significant improvement in the outcome of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe forms of primary immunodeficiencies.
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic granulomatous disease and leukocyte adhesion deficiency are the major primary immune deficiencies affecting phagocytic blood cells. Major advances in clinical diagnosis and development of novel treatments for these disorders merit review. Clinically beneficial gene therapy correction of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease in two adult patients was reported. Nonmyeloablative busulfan conditioning before administration of gene corrected autologous hematopoietic stem cells was likely an essential maneuver to achieve successful gene therapy. There is an increased association of autoimmune disorders with chronic granulomatous disease. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of leukocyte adhesion deficiency-I led to the birth of a normal child. A canine model of leukocyte adhesion deficiency-I facilitated development of new nonmyeloablative hematopoietic stem cell transplant and gene therapy approaches to leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Nonmyeloablative transplantation may provide an effective, but less toxic approach for leukocyte adhesion deficiency in children. There have been advances in understanding the basis of leukocyte adhesion deficiency-II and III. The most important subjects reviewed in this chapter include new advances in development of gene therapy for chronic granulomatous disease and leukocyte adhesion deficiency-I; transplantation for leukocyte adhesion deficiency-I; prenatal diagnosis of leukocyte adhesion deficiency-I; and association of autoimmune diseases with chronic granulomatous disease.
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    ABSTRACT: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I (LAD-I) is an inherited immunodeficiency disorder caused by defective expression of the leukocyte integrins, namely, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1, Mac-1, and p150, 95, and is associated with obstructed cell adhesion, migration, and phagocytosis. Patients suffer from various bacterial or fungal infections and their prognoses are poor. The only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Conventional myeloablative transplantations have been performed, but with unsatisfactory results. We performed the first successful nonmyeloablative unrelated marrow transplantation for a 20-year-old female LAD-I patient, who suffered from recurrent and occasionally life-threatening infections such as cellulitis, gingivostomatitis, and sepsis. We adopted a preparative regimen with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and low-dose total-body irradiation, and tacrolimus and short-term methotrexate as immunosuppressants. This procedure was sufficiently immunosuppressive to obtain stable engraftment without remarkable complications, and graft-versus-host disease was controllable. Dramatic improvement of her disease was observed, supported by the normal expressions of integrins. Twenty one months after transplantation, she is well with a Karnofsky score of 100. Thus, nonmyeloablative transplantation is considered a feasible method for LAD-I.
    International Journal of Hematology 08/2007; 86(1):91-5. DOI:10.1532/IJH97.06209 · 1.92 Impact Factor
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