Proteomic analysis of human meibomian gland secretions.

Schepens Eye Research Institute, 20 Staniford Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA.
British Journal of Ophthalmology (Impact Factor: 2.81). 04/2006; 90(3):372-7. DOI: 10.1136/bjo.2005.080846
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Human tears contain hundreds of proteins that may exert a significant influence on tear film stability, ocular surface integrity, and visual function. The authors hypothesise that many of these proteins originate from the meibomian gland. This study's aim was to begin to develop the proteomic methodology to permit the testing of their hypothesis.
Meibomian gland secretions were collected from the lower eyelids of adult volunteers and placed in a chloroform-methanol mixture. Samples were partitioned in a biphasic system and non-lipid phase materials were reduced, alkylated, and trypsin digested to obtain peptides for protein identification. This peptide mixture was separated by micro-capillary reverse phase chromatography and the effluent examined by nano-electrospray MS and data dependent MS/MS. SEQUEST software was used to identify proteins from the MS/MS spectra.
The methodological approach to date has permitted the identification of more than 90 proteins in human meibomian gland secretions. Proteins include the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor, IgA alpha chain, farnesoid X activated receptor, interferon regulatory factor 3, lacritin precursor, lactotransferrin, lipocalin 1, lysozyme C precursor, potential phospholipid transporting ATPase IK, seven transmembrane helix receptor (also termed somatostatin receptor type 4), testes development related NYD-SP21 (also termed high affinity IgE receptor beta subunit), and TrkC tyrosine kinase.
These findings indicate that the meibomian gland secretes a number of proteins into the tear film. It is quite possible that these proteins contribute to the dynamics of the tear film in both health and disease.

Download full-text


Available from: James E Evans, Jun 29, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Protein-meibum and terpenoids-meibum lipid interactions could be important in the etiology of meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) and dry eye symptoms. In the current model studies, attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared (IR) spectroscopy was used to determine if the terpenoid β-carotene and the major proteins in tears and meibum affect the hydrocarbon chain conformation and carbonyl environment of wax, an abundant component of meibum. The main finding of these studies is that mucin binding to wax disordered slightly the conformation of the hydrocarbon chains of wax and caused the wax carbonyls to become hydrogen bonded or experience a more hydrophilic environment. Lysozyme and lactoglobulin, two proteins shown to bind to monolayers of meibum, did not have such an effect. Keratin and β-carotene did not affect the fluidity (viscosity) or environment of the carbonyl moieties of wax. Based on these results, tetraterpenoids are not likely to influence the structure of meibum in the meibomian glands. In addition, these findings suggest that it is unlikely that keratin blocks meibomian glands by causing the meibum to become more viscous. Among the tear fluid proteins studied, mucin is the most likely to influence the conformation and carbonyl environment of meibum at the tear film surface.
    Experimental Eye Research 04/2012; 100:32-9. DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2012.04.003 · 3.02 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms that regulate the complex physiological task of photoreceptor outer segment assembly remain an enigma. One limiting factor in revealing the mechanism(s) by which this process is modulated is that not all of the role players who participate in this process are known. The purpose of this study was to determine some of the retinal proteins that likely play a critical role in regulating photoreceptor outer segment assembly. To do so, we analyzed and compared the proteome map of tadpole Xenopus laevis retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-supported retinas containing organized outer segments with that of RPE-deprived retinas containing disorganized outer segments. Solubilized proteins were labeled with CyDye fluors followed by multiplexed two-dimensional separation. The intensity of protein spots and comparison of proteome maps was performed using DeCyder software. Identification of differentially regulated proteins was determined using nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. We found a total of 27 protein spots, 21 of which were unique proteins, which were differentially expressed in retinas with disorganized outer segments. We predict that in the absence of the RPE, oxidative stress initiates an unfolded protein response. Subsequently, downregulation of several candidate Müller glial cell proteins may explain the inability of photoreceptors to properly fold their outer segment membranes. In this study, we have used identification and bioinformatics assessment of proteins that are differentially expressed in retinas with disorganized outer segments as a first step in determining probable key molecules involved in regulating photoreceptor outer segment assembly.
    Glia 03/2009; 57(4):380-92. DOI:10.1002/glia.20765 · 6.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Experimental Eye Research 04/2008; 86(3):457-8. DOI:10.1016/j.exer.2007.01.025 · 3.02 Impact Factor