To assess the feasibility and efficacy of subcutaneous amifostine therapy in patients with head and neck cancer treated with curative accelerated radiotherapy (RT).
University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Thirty-three consecutive patients (male-female ratio, 4.5; median age, 54 years [age range, 39-76 years]).
Between November 2000 and January 2003, the 33 patients were treated with curative definitive (n = 19) or postoperative (n = 14) RT with (n = 26) or without (n = 7) chemotherapy. All patients received conformal RT. Fractionation schedule consisted of concomitant-boost (Friday afternoon session) accelerated RT using 70 Gy (2 Gy per fraction) in 6 weeks in patients treated with definitive RT and 66 Gy (2 Gy per fraction) in 5 weeks and 3 days in the postoperative setting. Parotid glands received at least 50 Gy in all patients. Amifostine was administered to a total dose of 500 mg subcutaneously, 15 to 30 minutes before morning RT sessions.
All patients received their planned treatment (including chemotherapy). Ten patients received the full schedule of amifostine (at least 25 injections), 9 received 20 to 24 doses, 4 received 10 to 19 doses, 5 received 5 to 9 doses, and 5 received fewer than 5 doses. Fifteen patients (45%) did not show any intolerance related to amifostine use. Amifostine therapy was discontinued because of nausea in 11 patients (33%) and hypotension in 6 patients (18%), and 1 patient refused treatment. No grade 3, amifostine-related, cutaneous toxic effects were observed. Radiotherapy-induced grade 3 acute toxic effects included mucositis in 14 patients (42%), erythema in 14 patients (42%), and dysphagia in 13 patients (39%). Late toxic effects included grade 2 or more xerostomia in 17 patients (51%) and fibrosis in 3 patients (9%). Grade 2 or more xerostomia was observed in 8 (42%) of 19 patients receiving 20 injections or more vs 9 (64%) of 14 patients receiving fewer than 20 injections (P = .15).
Subcutaneous amifostine administration in combination with accelerated concomitant-boost RT with or without chemotherapy is feasible. The major adverse effect of subcutaneous administration was nausea despite prophylactic antiemetic medication, and hypotension was observed in only 6 patients (18%).
"Nausea, vomiting, and hypotension were less severe with SC amifostine, but cutaneous toxicity was more frequent. Ozsahin et al (2006) Head and neck cancer SC Patients received 500 mg dose prior to radiation. 45% of patients showed no intolerance, 33% of patients discontinued treatment due to nausea, 18% due to hypotension. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amifostine (ethiofos, WR-2721) is an organic thiophosphate prodrug that serves as an antineoplastic adjunct and cytoprotective agent useful in cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The selective protection of certain tissues of the body is believed to be due to higher alkaline phosphatase activity, higher pH and vascular permeation of normal tissues. Amifostine is conventionally administered intravenously before chemotherapy or radiotherapy. It is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to reduce cumulative renal toxicity associated with repeated administration of cisplatin in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. It was originally indicated to reduce the cumulative renal toxicity from cisplatin in non-small cell lung cancer although this indication was withdrawn in 2005. Amifostine is also FDA approved for patients with head and neck cancer to reduce the incidence of moderate to severe xerostomia in patients who are undergoing postoperative radiation treatment where the radiation port includes a substantial portion of the parotid glands. The potential of amifostine as a cytoprotective agent is unlikely to be fully realized if the method of administration is restricted to intravenous administration. Attempts have been made to develop non-invasive methods of delivery such as transdermal patches, pulmonary inhalers, and oral sustained-release microspheres. It is the goal of this article to explore non-intravenous routes of administration associated with better efficacy of the drug. This review will primarily focus on the variety of more recently studied (2002 and later) alternative modes for amifostine administration, including subcutaneous, intrarectal and oral routes.
Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 08/2008; 60(7):809-15. DOI:10.1211/jpp.60.7.0001 · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genistein, a non-toxic isoflavone from soybeans, has immunomodulating and radioprotective properties. In this study we investigated the mechanism for genistein-induced radioprotection by evaluating the recovery of bone marrow cells and peripheral blood hematology in lethally irradiated mice.
CD2F1 male mice received a single subcutaneous injection of genistein (200 mg/kg) 24 h prior to a lethal, total body irradiation dose (8.75 Gy) of cobalt-60 gamma radiation. Survival and hematopoietic reconstitution were evaluated over nine weeks post-irradiation. Hematopoietic progenitor colony-forming cell assays were used to assess the reconstitution of bone marrow after radiation-induced myelosuppression.
A total of 97% of genistein-treated mice survived after 30 days while 31% of vehicle-treated and 0% of untreated mice survived. The improvement in survival was related to accelerated neutrophil and platelet recovery, resulting from earlier and more pronounced multilineage, hematopoietic progenitor cell reconstitution in the femoral marrow compartment. Myeloid and erythroid progenitor cell numbers at day 15 post-irradiation were 6-fold to 20-fold higher in genistein-treated animals than in control animals.
These results demonstrate that a single subcutaneous administration of genistein 24 h before irradiation provides significant radioprotection to the hematopoietic progenitor cell compartment.
International Journal of Radiation Biology 04/2007; 83(3):141-51. DOI:10.1080/09553000601132642 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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