Obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity as risk factors for CKD: Are men more vulnerable?

Leiden University, Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
American Journal of Kidney Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.76). 03/2006; 47(3):396-405. DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2005.11.027
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The incidence of end-stage renal disease is especially high in men, and some studies indicated that smoking is a risk factor for men only. We investigated associations between obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the general population and whether risk for CKD was restricted to men.
This was a cross-sectional health survey of the entire adult population of Nord-Trondelag County, Norway, 1995 to 1997, with a 70.6% participation rate. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated in all subjects 20 years and older from calibrated serum creatinine levels by using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study formula, and CKD cases are defined as those with a GFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 (< 0.75 mL/s).
A total of 30,485 men and 34,708 women were included, and prevalences of GFR less than 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 (< 0.75 mL/s) were 0.8% and 1.1%, respectively. Age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression analyses showed dose-response relations for body mass index, smoking history, and physical activity. Relative risks were 1.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47 to 2.14) for obesity (body mass index > or = 30 kg/m2), 1.52 (95% CI, 1.13 to 2.06) for smoking (> 25 pack-years), and 2.14 (95% CI, 1.39 to 3.30) for physical inactivity (no or some physical activity in leisure time). For subjects with all these risk factors, relative risk was 5.10 (95% CI, 2.36 to 11.01). These results remained significant after adjusting for other known risk factors. No biological interactions between sex and obesity, smoking, or physical activity were found.
Obesity, smoking, and physical inactivity were associated significantly with CKD. Men were not more susceptible to these risk factors than women.

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    ABSTRACT: To assess the association between exercise capacity and the risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Exercise capacity was assessed in 5812 male veterans (mean age, 58.4±11.5 years) from the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington, DC. Study participants had an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) or more 6 months before exercise testing and no evidence of CKD. Those who developed CKD during follow-up were initially identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and further verified by at least 2 consecutive estimated glomerular filtration rate values of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) 3 months or more apart. Normal kidney function for CKD-free individuals was confirmed by sequential normal eGFR levels. We established 4 fitness categories on the basis of age-stratified quartiles of peak metabolic equivalents (METs) achieved: least-fit (≤25%; 4.8±0.90 METs; n=1258); low-fit (25.1%-50%; 6.5±0.96 METs; n=1614); moderate-fit (50.1%-75%; 7.7±0.91 METs; n=1958), and high-fit (>75%; 9.5±1.0 METs; n=1436). Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the association between exercise capacity and CKD. During a median follow-up period of 7.9 years, 1010 developed CKD (20.4/1000 person-years). Exercise capacity was inversely related to CKD incidence. The risk was 22% lower (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.75-0.82; P<.001) for every 1-MET increase in exercise capacity. Compared with the least-fit individuals, hazard ratios were 0.87 (95% CI, 0.74-1.03) for low-fit, 0.55 (95% CI, 0.47-0.65) for moderate-fit, and 0.42 (95% CI, 0.33-0.52) for high-fit individuals. Higher exercise capacity attenuated the risk of developing CKD. The association was independent and graded. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: Nonapnea sleep disorders (NASDs) are associated with an increased risk of stroke, diabetes, and hypertension. No longitudinal study has yet examined the association between NASD and chronic kidney disease (CKD) by using epidemiologic study methods. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of NASD on the incidence of CKD in a large population-based retrospective cohort study.Based on a retrospective cohort study of a general population sample of 128 to 436 patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2001, 42 to 812 NASD patients were followed up for 10.2 ± 3.12 years, and additional 85 to 624 individuals had no NASD at baseline. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification was used to identify the diagnosis of disease. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the association between NASD and subsequent CKD risk.The incidence rate of CKD was significantly higher in the NASD cohort than in the comparison cohort (2.68 vs 1.88 per 1000 person-years, respectively). After we adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities, the risk of developing CKD was significant for patients with NASD (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-1.22; P < 0.01). Among different types of NASDs, patients with sleep disturbance associated disorders had a 14% increased risk of developing CKD (95% CI = 1.03-1.26; P < 0.01), whereas patients with insomnia had a 13% increased risk of subsequent CKD (95% CI = 1.02-1.25; P < 0.05) compared with the non-NASD cohort. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the CKD-free rate was 1% lower in the NASD cohort than in the comparison cohort (log-rank test, P < 0.0001).Our study provides evidence that patients with NASD have an increased risk of developing subsequent CKD compared with patients without NASD; men, elderly people, and patients with concomitant comorbidities are at the greatest risk.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Home-based exercise has been shown to provide benefits in terms of physical capacity in the general population, but has been scarcely investigated in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Aims To evaluate the impact of a home-based aerobic training on the cardiopulmonary and functional capacities of overweight non-dialysis-dependent patients with CKD (NDD-CKD). Methods Twenty-nine sedentary patients (55.1 ± 11.6 years, BMI = 31.2 ± 6.1 kg/m2, eGFR = 26.9 ± 17.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) were randomly assigned to a home-based exercise group (n = 14) or to a control group (n = 15) that remained without performing exercise. Aerobic training was performed three times per week for 12 weeks. A cardiopulmonary exercise test, functional capacity and clinical parameters were evaluated. Results A significant increase, ranging from 8.3 to 17 %, was observed in the cardiopulmonary capacity parameters, such as maximal ventilation (p = 0.005), VO2peak (p = 0.049), ventilatory threshold (p = 0.040) and respiratory compensation point (p p p p p p p = 0.042)] was also found in patients who were submitted to the exercise. Exercised patients experienced a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, average 10.6 % (p p = 0.007), respectively, and a trend toward improved renal function (p = 0.1). No change in any parameter was found in the control group during the follow-up. Conclusion The home-based aerobic exercise program was feasible, safe and effective for the improvement in the cardiopulmonary and functional capacities of overweight NDD-CKD patients.
    International Urology and Nephrology 12/2014; 47(2). DOI:10.1007/s11255-014-0894-8 · 1.29 Impact Factor

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