High serum selenium and reduced risk of advanced colorectal adenoma in a colorectal cancer early detection program
ABSTRACT Epidemiologic and animal studies suggest that selenium may reduce risk of colorectal cancer. However, the epidemiologic data is mainly from relatively small investigations, limiting their interpretation. Although substantial evidence suggests that smoking is a strong effect modifier for other antioxidative nutrients, little is known about smoking-selenium interactions in colorectal tumors.
We studied the association of serum selenium and advanced colorectal adenoma, a cancer precursor, in 758 cases and 767 sex- and race-matched controls, randomly selected from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Cases had at least one verified advanced adenoma (> or = 1 cm or villous elements, or high-grade dysplasia) of the distal colon, and controls had a negative sigmoidoscopy.
The multivariable odds ratio (OR) comparing participants in the highest quintile of serum selenium with those in the lowest quintile was 0.76 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.53-1.10; P(trend) = 0.01]. The inverse association between serum selenium and advanced colorectal adenoma was significant among recent smokers (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.27-1.01 for highest versus lowest tertile; P(trend) = 0.008). Serum selenium was unrelated to adenoma risk in nonsmokers and former smokers who quit smoking > or = 10 years ago.
Selenium may reduce the risk of developing advanced colorectal adenoma, particularly among the high-risk group of recent smokers.
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ABSTRACT: The anticancer property and cytoprotective role of selenium in chemotherapy have been reported. However, the combination effects of selenium on chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer have not yet been clearly defined. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of selenium on chemotherapy using docetaxel on breast cancer cell lines. Under adherent culture conditions, two breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, were treated with docetaxel at 500pM and selenium at 100nM, 1µM, or 10µM. Changes in cell growth, cell cycle duration, and degree of apoptosis after 72 hours in each treated group were evaluated. In the MDA-MB-231 cells, the combination therapy group (docetaxel at 500pM plus selenium at 10µM) showed a significantly decreased percentage of cell growth (15% vs. 28%; P = 0.004), a significantly increased percentage of late apoptosis (63% vs. 26%; P = 0.001), and an increased cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase (P = 0.001) compared with the solitary docetaxel therapy group. Isobologram analysis demonstrated the synergistic effect of the combination therapy in the MDA-MB-231 cells. However, in the MCF-7 cells, no significant differences in the percentage of cell growth apoptosis, the percentage of apoptosis, and the pattern of cell cycle arrest were noted between the combination therapy groups and the solitary docetaxel therapy group. Our in vitro study indicated that the combination of selenium with docetaxel inhibits cell proliferation through apoptosis and cell arrest in the G2/M phase in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. People at higher risk are those individuals with a family history of CRC and familial adenomatous polyposis. Prevention and screening are two milestones for this disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemopreventive role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin and cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors, some micronutrients (folic acid, calcium, selenium, antioxidants) and probiotics. Discussion: The studies on aspiring reported promising results, but it is debatable whether aspirin should be used as chemoprevention, because of its side effects and because of poor efficacy evident in subjects at high risk. Similar results were reported for other non-aspirin NSAIDs, such as sulindac and celecoxib, which the potential adverse effects limit their use. Selenium role in prevention of various types of cancer as well as in colon adenomas are often inconclusive or controversial. Several studies suggested that calcium may have a possible chemopreventive effect on colon adenomas and CRC, although contrasting results are reported for the latter. A recent meta-analysis including 13 randomized trial suggested that folic acid supplementation had not a chemiopreventive action on CRC. Several studies investigated the association between antioxidants, administered alone or in combination, and CRC risk, both among general and at risk population, but only few of them supported statistically significant results. Conclusion: The results of this literature review showed an unclear role in CRC prevention of both pharmacological and dietary intervention. Despite several options are available to prevent colon cancer, it is challenging to identify a correct strategy to prevent CRC through pharmacological and dietary intervention due to the long latency of cancer promotion and development. Since some of the drugs investigated may have uncertain individual effects, it can be suggested to potentiate such effects by adding them together.BMC Surgery 10/2013; 13 (suppl 2)(S16). DOI:10.1186/1471-2482-13-S2-S16 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Suboptimal intakes of the micronutrient selenium (Se) are found in many parts of Europe. Low Se status may contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We assessed Se status by measuring serum levels of Se and Selenoprotein P (SePP) and examined the association with CRC risk in a nested case-control design (966 CRC cases; 966 matched controls) within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Se was measured by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and SePP by immunoluminometric sandwich assay. Multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Respective mean Se and SePP levels were 84.0 μg/L and 4.3 mg/L in cases and 85.6 μg/L and 4.4 mg/L in controls. Higher Se concentrations were associated with a non-significant lower CRC risk (IRR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.82-1.03 per 25 μg/L increase). However, sub-group analyses by sex showed a statistically significant association for women (ptrend = 0.032; per 25 μg/L Se increase, IRR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.97) but not for men. Higher SePP concentrations were inversely associated with CRC risk (ptrend = 0.009; per 0.806 mg/L increase, IRR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82-0.98) with the association more apparent in women (ptrend = 0.004; IRR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.72-0.94 per 0.806 mg/L increase) than men (ptrend = 0.485; IRR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.86-1.12 per 0.806 mg/L increase). The findings indicate that Se status is suboptimal in many Europeans and suggest an inverse association between CRC risk and higher serum Se status, which is more evident in women.International Journal of Cancer 07/2014; DOI:10.1002/ijc.29071 · 6.20 Impact Factor