Nucleotide excision repair enzymes remove bulky damage caused by environmental agents, including carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke, a risk factor for colorectal adenoma. Among participants randomized to the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, we studied the risk of advanced colorectal adenoma in relation to cigarette smoking and selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the nucleotide excision repair pathway.
Cases (n = 772) were subjects with left-sided advanced adenoma (>1 cm in size, high-grade dysplasia, or villous characteristics). Controls (n = 777) were screen-negative for left-sided polyps by sigmoidoscopy. DNA was extracted from blood samples and 15 common nonsynonymous SNPs in seven-nucleotide excision repair genes [XPC, RAD23B (hHR23B), CSB (ERCC6), XPD (ERCC2), CCNH, XPF (ERCC4), and XPG (ERCC5)] were genotyped.
None of the studied SNPs were independently associated with advanced adenoma risk. Smoking was related to adenoma risk and XPC polymorphisms (R492H, A499V, K939Q) modified these effects (P(interaction) from 0.03-0.003). Although the three XPC variants were in linkage disequilibrium, a multivariate logistic regression tended to show independent protective effects for XPC 499V (P(trend) = 0.06), a finding supported by haplotype analysis (covariate-adjusted global permutation P = 0.03).
Examining a spectrum of polymorphic variants in nucleotide excision repair genes, we found evidence that smoking-associated risks for advanced colorectal adenoma are modified by polymorphisms in XPC, particularly haplotypes containing XPC 499V.
"Subsequently, disruption of this gene was related to the development of age-related macular degeneration (Tuo et al., 2006). Quite recently, genetic variations of ERCC6 have been linked to the susceptibility to various cancers, including lung cancer (Lin et al., 2008; Ma et al., 2009), breast cancer (Mechanic et al., 2006; Rajaraman et al., 2008), prostate cancer (Hooker et al., 2008), bladder cancer (Chen et al., 2007; Chang et al., 2009) and colorectal cancer (Berndt et al., 2006; Huang et al., 2006). However, the relation of ERCC6 polymorphism with gastric cancer risk is still unclear, which deserves to be further clarified. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Excision repair cross-complementing group 6 (ERCC6) is a major component of the nucleotide excision repair pathway that plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability and integrity. Several recent studies suggested a link of ERCC6 polymorphisms with susceptibility to various cancers. However, the relation of ERCC6 polymorphism with gastric cancer (GC) risk remains elusive. In this sex- and age- matched case-control study including 402 GC cases and 804 cancer-free controls, we aimed to investigate the association between a potentially functional polymorphism (rs1917799 T>G) in the ERCC6 regulatory region and GC risk.
The genotypes of rs1917799 were determined by Sequenom MassARRAY platform and the status of Helicobacter pylori infection was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidential interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression analysis.
Compared with the common TT genotype, the ERCC6 rs1917799 GG genotype was associated with increased GC risk (adjusted OR=1.46, 95%CI: 1.03-2.08, P=0.035). When compared with (GT+TT) genotypes, the GG genotype also demonstrated a statistical association with increased GC risk (adjusted OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.01-1.89, P=0.044). This was also observed for the male subpopulation (GG vs. TT: adjusted OR=1.71, 95%CI: 1.12-2.62, P=0.013; G allele vs. T allele: adjusted OR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.07-1.62, P=0.009). Genetic effects on increased GC risk tended to be enhanced by H. pylori infection, smoking and drinking, but their interaction effects on GC risk did not reach statistical significance.
ERCC6 rs1917799 GG genotype might be associated with increased GC risk in Chinese, especially in males.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 10/2013; 14(10):6103-8. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.10.6103 · 2.51 Impact Factor
"Up to now, a total of 580 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the XPF gene have been reported according to the dbSNP database (http://snpinfo.niehs.nih.gov/), some of which have been reported to be associated with risk of several kinds of cancers, such as breast cancer, endometrial cancer, colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer, lung cancer and skin cancers (Huang et al., 2006; Han et al., 2009; Doherty et al., 2011). However, only one study explores the role of two SNPs of ERCC4 in the risk of glioma in USA, so we reported the predictive role of four XPF SNPs in the risk of glioma. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted an exploratory investigation of whether variation in six common SNPs of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group F (XPF) is associated with risk of glioma in a Chinese population. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 207 glioma cases and 236 cancer-free controls by a 384-well plate format on the Sequenom MassARRAY platform (Sequenom, San Diego, USA). The rs1800067 G and rs2276466 G allele frequencies were significantly higher in the glioma group than controls. Individuals with the rs1800067 GG genotype were at greater risk of glioma when compared with the A/A genotype in the codominant model, with an OR (95% CI) of 2.63 (1.04-7.25). The rs2276466 polymorphism was significantly associated with moderate increased risk of glioma in codominant and dominant models, with ORs (95% CI) of 1.90 (1.05-3.44) and 1.55 (1.07-2.47), respectively. The combination genotype of rs1800067 G and rs2276466 G alleles was associated with a reduced risk of glioma (OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.19-0.98). These findings indicate that genetic variants of the XPF gene have critical functions in the development of glioma.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 07/2013; 14(7):4083-7. DOI:10.7314/APJCP.2013.14.7.4083 · 2.51 Impact Factor
"The XPC gene encodes part of the XPC-HR23B complex that plays a role in the early step of NER by initially detecting the DNA damage. The complex can bind to damaged DNA and change the DNA conformation around the lesion  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although tobacco and alcohol consumption are two common risk factors of head and neck cancer (HNC), other specific etiologic causes, such as viral infection and genetic susceptibility factors, remain to be understood. Human DNA is often damaged by numerous endogenous and exogenous mutagens or carcinogens, and genetic variants in interaction with environmental exposure to these agents may explain interindividual differences in HNC risk. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA damage-repair response are reported to be risk factors for various cancer types, including HNC. Here, we reviewed epidemiological studies that have assessed the associations between HNC risk and SNPs in DNA repair genes involved in base-excision repair, nucleotide-excision repair, mismatch repair, double-strand break repair and direct reversion repair pathways. We found, however, that only a few SNPs in DNA repair genes were found to be associated with significantly increased or decreased risk of HNC, and, in most cases, the effects were moderate, depending upon locus-locus interactions among the risk SNPs in the pathways. We believe that, in the presence of exposure, additional pathway-based analyses of DNA repair genes derived from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in HNC are needed.
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