Prospective study of calcium intake and incident and fatal prostate cancer

Department of Nutrition , Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention (Impact Factor: 4.32). 03/2006; 15(2):203-10. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0586
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is the most common incident cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality in U.S. males. Higher milk intake has been relatively consistently associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer, especially advanced prostate cancer. Some data suggest that high intake of calcium might account for this association, but this relationship remains controversial. We hypothesized that high calcium intake, possibly by lowering 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels, is associated with poorer differentiation in prostate cancer and thereby with fatal prostate cancer. We examined calcium intake in relation to prostate cancer risk using data from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a prospective cohort study of 47,750 male health professionals with no history of cancer other than nonmelanoma skin cancer at baseline. We assessed total, dietary, and supplementary calcium intake in 1986, 1990, 1994, and 1998, using a validated food frequency questionnaire. We calculated the multivariable relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Over 16 years of follow-up, we identified 3,544 total cases of prostate cancer, 523 advanced (extraprostatic) cases, and 312 fatal cases. Higher calcium intake was not appreciably associated with total or nonadvanced prostate cancer but was associated with a higher risk of advanced and fatal prostate cancer [for fatal prostate cancer, compared with men whose long-term calcium intake was 500-749 mg/d (excluding supplement use of <5 years); those with intakes of 1,500-1,999 mg/d had a RR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.17-3.01; and those with > or = 2,000 mg/d had a RR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.32-4.48; P(trend) = 0.003]. Dietary calcium and supplementary calcium were independently associated with an increased risk. For high-grade prostate cancer (Gleason > or = 7), an association was observed for high versus low calcium intake (RR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.32-2.71; P(trend) = 0.005), but a nonsignificant, inverse association was observed for organ-confined, low-grade prostate cancer (RR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.25; P(trend) = 0.09). In a sample of this cohort, higher calcium intake was associated with lower circulating 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels. Our findings suggest that calcium intakes exceeding 1,500 mg/d may be associated with a decrease in differentiation in prostate cancer and ultimately with a higher risk of advanced and fatal prostate cancer but not with well-differentiated, organ-confined cancers.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined consumption of animal foods, protein and calcium in relation to risk of prostate cancer among 142 251 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Associations were examined using Cox regression, stratified by recruitment centre and adjusted for height, weight, education, marital status and energy intake. After an average of 8.7 years of follow-up, there were 2727 incident cases of prostate cancer, of which 1131 were known to be localised and 541 advanced-stage disease. A high intake of dairy protein was associated with an increased risk, with a hazard ratio for the top versus the bottom fifth of intake of 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.41, P(trend)=0.02). After calibration to allow for measurement error, we estimated that a 35-g day(-1) increase in consumption of dairy protein was associated with an increase in the risk of prostate cancer of 32% (95% CI: 1-72%, P(trend)=0.04). Calcium from dairy products was also positively associated with risk, but not calcium from other foods. The results support the hypothesis that a high intake of protein or calcium from dairy products may increase the risk for prostate cancer.
    British Journal of Cancer 06/2008; 98(9):1574-81. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604331 · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To review the prevalence of nutrition-related complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) used by patients with cancer, to discuss nutrition issues commonly raised by cancer survivors, and to describe how the oncology health care practitioner can best address these issues. Journal articles, texts, and personal oncology nutrition clinical experience. The interest in and use of special diets and nutrition-related CAM is prevalent in oncology patients. While some nutrition interventions may offer benefit, not all are without risk. Every patient must be assessed for the use of special diets and nutrition-related CAM, any use must be documented, and the person counseled about the pros and cons of these approaches.
    Seminars in Oncology Nursing 02/2012; 28(1):75-84. DOI:10.1016/j.soncn.2011.11.008
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Dietary supplements are a multi-billion dollar industry in the U.S., and their use is increasing exponentially. Additionally, many foods and beverages are increasingly being fortified with single or multiple vitamins and minerals. Consequently, nutrient intakes are exceeding the safe limits established by the Institute of Medicine. In this paper, we examine the benefits and drawbacks of vitamin and mineral supplements and increasing consumption of fortified foods (in addition to dietary intake) in the U.S. population. The pros and cons are illustrated using population estimates of folic acid, calcium and vitamin D intake, highlighting concerns related to overconsumption of nutrients that should be addressed by regulatory agencies.
    Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition 01/2013; DOI:10.1080/10408398.2013.818527 · 5.55 Impact Factor