Thermodynamic analysis reveals structural rearrangement during the acylation step in human trypsin 4 on 4-methylumbelliferyl 4-guanidinobenzoate substrate analogue.
ABSTRACT Human trypsin 4 is an unconventional serine protease that possesses an arginine at position 193 in place of the highly conserved glycine. Although this single amino acid substitution does not affect steady-state activity on small synthetic substrates, it has dramatic effects on zymogen activation, interaction with canonical inhibitors, and substrate specificity toward macromolecular substrates. To study the effect of a non-glycine residue at position 193 on the mechanism of the individual enzymatic reaction steps, we expressed wild type human trypsin 4 and its R193G mutant. 4-Methylumbelliferyl 4-guanidinobenzoate has been chosen as a substrate analogue, where deacylation is rate-limiting, and transient kinetic methods were used to monitor the reactions. This experimental system allows for the separation of the individual reaction steps during substrate hydrolysis and the determination of their rate constants dependably. We suggest a refined model for the reaction mechanism, in which acylation is preceded by the reversible formation of the first tetrahedral intermediate. Furthermore, the thermodynamics of these steps were also investigated. The formation of the first tetrahedral intermediate is highly exothermic and accompanied by a large entropy decrease for the wild type enzyme, whereas the signs of the enthalpy and entropy changes are opposite and smaller for the R193G mutant. This difference in the energetic profiles indicates much more extended structural and/or dynamic rearrangements in the equilibrium step of the first tetrahedral intermediate formation in wild type human trypsin 4 than in the R193G mutant enzyme, which may contribute to the biological function of this protease.
Article: Human mesotrypsin exhibits restricted S1' subsite specificity with a strong preference for small polar side chains.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mesotrypsin, an inhibitor-resistant human trypsin isoform, does not activate or degrade pancreatic protease zymogens at a significant rate. These observations led to the proposal that mesotrypsin is a defective digestive protease on protein substrates. Surprisingly, the studies reported here with alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) revealed that, even though mesotrypsin was completely resistant to this serpin-type inhibitor, it selectively cleaved the Lys10-Thr11 peptide bond at the N-terminus. Analyzing a library of alpha1AT mutants in which Thr11 was mutated to various amino acids, we found that mesotrypsin hydrolyzed lysyl peptide bonds containing Thr or Ser at the P1' position with relatively high specificity (kcat/KM approximately 10(5) m(-1) x s(-1)). Compared with Thr or Ser, P1' Gly or Met inhibited cleavage 13- and 25-fold, respectively, whereas P1' Asn, Asp, Ile, Phe or Tyr resulted in 100-200-fold diminished rates of proteolysis, and Pro abolished cleavage completely. Consistent with the Ser/Thr P1' preference, mesotrypsin cleaved the Arg358-Ser359 reactive-site peptide bond of alpha1AT Pittsburgh and was rapidly inactivated by the serpin mechanism (ka approximately 10(6) m(-1) s(-1)). Taken together, the results indicate that mesotrypsin is not a defective protease on polypeptide substrates in general, but exhibits a relatively high specificity for Lys/Arg-Ser/Thr peptide bonds. This restricted, thrombin-like subsite specificity explains why mesotrypsin cannot activate pancreatic zymogens, but might activate certain proteinase-activated receptors. The observations also identify alpha1AT Pittsburgh as an effective mesotrypsin inhibitor and the serpin mechanism as a viable stratagem to overcome the inhibitor-resistance of mesotrypsin.FEBS Journal 08/2006; 273(13):2942-54. · 3.79 Impact Factor