Effect of arachidonic acid reacylation on leukotriene biosynthesis in human neutrophils stimulated with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine.
ABSTRACT Priming of human neutrophils with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) followed by treatment with formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) stimulates cells in a physiologically relevant manner with modest 5-lipoxygenase activation and formation of leukotrienes. However, pretreatment of neutrophils with thimerosal, an organomercury thiosalicylic acid derivative, led to a dramatic increase (>50-fold) in the production of leukotriene B(4) and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, significantly higher than that observed after stimulation with calcium ionophore A23187. Little or no effect was observed with thimerosal alone or in combination with either GM-CSF or fMLP. Elevation of [Ca(2+)](i) induced by thimerosal in neutrophils stimulated with GM-CSF/fMLP was similar but more sustained compared with samples where thimerosal was absent. However, [Ca(2+)](i) was significantly lower compared with calcium ionophore-treated cells, suggesting that a sustained calcium rise was necessary but not sufficient to explain the effects of this compound on the GM-CSF/fMLP-stimulated neutrophil. Thimerosal was found to directly inhibit neutrophil lysophospholipid:acyl-CoA acyltransferase activity at the doses that stimulate leukotriene production, and analysis of lysates from neutrophil preparations stimulated in the presence of thimerosal showed a marked increase in free arachidonic acid, supporting the inhibition of the reincorporation of this fatty acid into the membrane phospholipids as a mechanism of action for this compound. The dramatic increase in production of leukotrienes by neutrophils when a physiological stimulus such as GM-CSF/fMLP is employed in the presence of thimerosal suggests a critical regulatory role of arachidonate reacylation that limits leukotriene biosynthesis in concert with 5-lipoxygenase and cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha activation.
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ABSTRACT: Comprehensive lipid profiling by mass spectrometry provides comparative data on the relative distribution of individual glycerophospholipids within each of the major classes. Application of this method to the analysis of glycerophospholipid remodeling in murine primary resident peritoneal macrophages (RPMs) during zymosan phagocytosis reveals significant decreases in the levels of every major arachidonic acid (20:4)-containing species of phosphatidylcholine (GPCho) and in selected 20:4-containing phosphatidylinositol (GPIns) and phosphatidylglycerol (GPGro) species. No net changes in 20:4-containing phosphatidylethanolamine (GPEtn) species were detected. Pretreatment of RPMs with LPS resulted in subtle changes in the magnitude and kinetics of the response but had no effect on the overall pattern of zymosan-induced glycerophospholipid remodeling. Inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis with indomethacin reduced the magnitude of the changes in 20:4-containing diacyl but not alkyl acyl species. Blockade of 20:4 reacylation with thimerosal had no effect on the magnitude of the zymosan-induced changes in GPCho, GPIns, or GPGro species but revealed decreases in the level of alkyl acyl GEtn species. RAW264.7 cells contain much lower levels of phospholipid 20:4 than do RPMs and synthesize PGs poorly in response to zymosan. Pretreatment with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, lipopolysaccharide, and interferon-gamma substantially increased the extent of 20:4 mobilization and PG synthesis in these cells. However, under conditions of maximal zymosan-dependent PG synthesis, the only glycerophospholipid that exhibited a significant change was a 20:4-containing plasmenyl GPEtn. These results suggest that GPCho is the major ultimate source of 20:4 that is mobilized in zymosan-stimulated RPMs but that 20:4 mobilization may involve the intermediate turnover of alkyl acyl GPEtn species.Biochemistry 06/2007; 46(20):6026-42. · 3.42 Impact Factor
Article: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lipids are water-insoluble molecules that have a wide variety of functions within cells, including: 1) maintenance of electrochemical gradients; 2) subcellular partitioning; 3) first- and second-messenger cell signaling; 4) energy storage; and 5) protein trafficking and membrane anchoring. The physiological importance of lipids is illustrated by the numerous diseases to which lipid abnormalities contribute, including atherosclerosis, diabetes, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease. Lipidomics, a branch of metabolomics, is a systems-based study of all lipids, the molecules with which they interact, and their function within the cell. Recent advances in soft-ionization mass spectrometry, combined with established separation techniques, have allowed the rapid and sensitive detection of a variety of lipid species with minimal sample preparation. A "lipid profile" from a crude lipid extract is a mass spectrum of the composition and abundance of the lipids it contains, which can be used to monitor changes over time and in response to particular stimuli. Lipidomics, integrated with genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, will contribute toward understanding how lipids function in a biological system and will provide a powerful tool for elucidating the mechanism of lipid-based disease, for biomarker screening, and for monitoring pharmacologic therapy.The Journal of Lipid Research 11/2006; 47(10):2101-11. · 5.56 Impact Factor