Quantification of 31 volatile organic compounds in whole blood using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci

Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA.
Journal of Chromatography B (Impact Factor: 2.73). 04/2006; 832(2):292-301. DOI: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2006.01.019
Source: PubMed


The prevalence of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has raised concern about possible health effects resulting from chronic human exposure. To support studies exploring the relation between VOC exposure and health effects, we developed an automated analytical method using solid-phase microextraction (SPME), capillary gas chromatography (GC), and quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS). This method quantifies trace levels (low parts per trillion) of 14 halogenated alkanes, 5 halogenated alkenes, 10 aromatic compounds, and 2 other VOCs in human blood. Detection limits for the SPME-GC-MS method range from 0.005 to 0.12 microg/L, with linear calibration curves spanning three orders of magnitude. The improved throughput of this method will enable us to expand biomonitoring efforts to assess nonoccupational VOC exposure in large epidemiological studies.

Download full-text


Available from: Benjamin C Blount, Oct 03, 2014
133 Reads
  • Source
    • "Analysis of VOCs in the blood could lead to the discovery of links between the type of specific VOCs analyzed and a disease's development and progression. Such links might also add to our understanding of the biochemical pathways associated with the disease and possibly lead to the identification of new targets for disease treatments (Blount et al., 2006; Shirasu and Touhara, 2011; Xue et al., 2008). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was first introduced in 1990 and subsequently optimized. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by dopaminergic (DA) neuron depletion. Early detection of PD may help in selecting the appropriate treatment. Biomarkers of PD have been suggested, however none of these is currently in clinical use. The aim of this study was to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as early biomarkers of PD. Our hypothesis was that during PD progression, specific VOCs are generated that are linked to the biochemical pathways characterizing PD. These VOCs can be detected by GC–MS combined with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique. Three groups of rats were studied: DA-lesioned rats injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (HDA; 250 μg/rat n=11); control rats injected with saline (n=9), and control rats injected with DSP-4 (n=8), a specific noradrenergic neuron toxin. Blood and striatal tissue homogenate were analyzed. In the blood, 1-octen-3-ol and 2-ethylhexanol were found at significantly higher concentrations in HDA versus sham rats. In the striatal homogenate 1-octen-3-ol and other four compounds were found at significantly lower concentrations in HDA versus sham rats. 1-Octen-3-ol is a cytotoxic compound. These results may lead to the development of an early diagnostic test for PD based on profiling of VOCs in body fluids.
    Neurochemistry International 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.neuint.2014.06.016 · 3.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Styrene is present in consumer products and building materials, including polystyrene, carpets, adhesives, hobby and craft supplies, and home maintenance products (IARC 2002; NTP 2011). NHANES and others have measured styrene and its metabolites and adducts in blood samples from the general population (Blount et al. 2006). Urinary mercapturic and mandelic acid metabolites will be included in future NHANES assessments (Alwis et al. 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Exposure to chemicals that cause rodent mammary gland tumors is common, but few studies have evaluated potential breast cancer risks in humans. The goal of this paper is to facilitate measurement of biomarkers of exposure to potential breast carcinogens in breast cancer studies and biomonitoring. We conducted a structured literature search to identify measurement methods for exposure biomarkers for 102 chemicals that cause rodent mammary tumors. To evaluate concordance, we compared human and animal evidence for agents identified as plausibly linked to breast cancer in major reviews. To facilitate future application of exposure biomarkers, we compiled information about relevant cohort studies. Exposure biomarkers have been developed for nearly three-quarters of these rodent mammary carcinogens. Methods have been published for 73 of the chemicals. Some of the others could be measured with modified versions of existing methods for related chemicals. Exposure to 62 has been measured in humans, 45 in a non-occupationally exposed population. US CDC has measured 23 in the US population. Seventy-five of the rodent mammary carcinogens fall into 17 groups, based on exposure potential, carcinogenicity, and structural similarity. Carcinogenicity in humans and rodents is generally consistent, although comparisons are limited because few agents have been studied in humans. We identified 44 cohort studies that have recorded breast cancer incidence and stored biological samples, with a total of over 3.5 million enrolled women. Exposure measurement methods and cohort study resources are available to expand biomonitoring and epidemiology related to breast cancer etiology and prevention.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 05/2014; 122(9). DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307455 · 7.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "The studies tended to use purge and trap analysis combined with GCMS [131] but more recently they have adopted solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) based methods coupled to GCMS [130]. The data from NHANES is used to set expected limits for a range of VOCs in blood (usually in the ppb/ppt range) for non occupationally exposed individuals [129]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A compendium of all the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emanating from the human body (the volatolome) is for the first time reported. 1840 VOCs have been assigned from breath (872), saliva (359), blood (154), milk (256), skin secretions (532) urine (279), and faeces (381) in apparently healthy individuals. Compounds were assigned CAS registry numbers and named according to a common convention where possible. The compounds have been grouped into tables according to their chemical class or functionality to permit easy comparison. Some clear differences are observed, for instance, a lack of esters in urine with a high number in faeces. Careful use of the database is needed. The numbers may not be a true reflection of the actual VOCs present from each bodily excretion. The lack of a compound could be due to the techniques used or reflect the intensity of effort e.g. there are few publications on VOCs from blood compared to a large number on VOCs in breath. The large number of volatiles reported from skin is partly due to the methodologies used, e.g. collecting excretions on glass beads and then heating to desorb VOCs. All compounds have been included as reported (unless there was a clear discrepancy between name and chemical structure), but there may be some mistaken assignations arising from the original publications, particularly for isomers. It is the authors' intention that this database will not only be a useful database of VOCs listed in the literature, but will stimulate further study of VOCs from healthy individuals. Establishing a list of volatiles emanating from healthy individuals and increased understanding of VOC metabolic pathways is an important step for differentiating between diseases using VOCs.
    Journal of Breath Research 01/2014; 8(1):014001. DOI:10.1088/1752-7155/8/1/014001 · 4.63 Impact Factor
Show more