Expanding insights of mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.

Department of Molecular Neuroscience, Institute of Neurology, Queen Square, London WC1N 3BG, UK.
Nature reviews Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 31.38). 04/2006; 7(3):207-19. DOI: 10.1038/nrn1868
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The quest to disentangle the aetiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease has been heavily influenced by the genes associated with the disease. The alpha-synuclein-centric theory of protein aggregation with the adjunct of parkin-driven proteasome deregulation has, in recent years, been complemented by the discovery and increasing knowledge of the functions of DJ1, PINK1 and OMI/HTRA2, which are all associated with the mitochondria and have been implicated in cellular protection against oxidative damage. We critically review how these genes fit into and enhance our understanding of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease, and consider how oxidative stress might be a potential unifying factor in the aetiopathogenesis of the disease.

1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this study, rat models of Parkinson's disease induced by substantia nigra injection of 6-hydroxy-dopamine were intragastrically administered Zhichan powder daily for 50 days. Reverse transcription PCR results showed that tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA expression in the rat substantia nigra was significantly increased, while monoamine oxidase B mRNA expression was significantly decreased in the Zhichan powder group, compared with the model group. In addition, the levels of striatal dopamine and homovanillic acid, the ratio of dopamine to homovanillic acid, and the activity of blood superoxide dismutase were all higher in the Zhichan powder group than in the model group, but the content of malondialdehyde in blood was lower. Our experimental findings indicate that Zhichan powder has an antioxidant effect, it can regulate the expression of monoamine oxidase B and tyrosine hydroxylase in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease rats, and it can facilitate the secretion of striatal dopamine and its metabolite homovanillic acid.
    Neural Regeneration Research 09/2012; 7(27):2107-14. DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1673-5374.2012.27.004 · 0.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases are age-related neurodegenerative disorders in which formation of amyloid aggregates by amyloid-beta (Abeta) and α-synuclein (αS) proteins, respectively, are recognised critical events that occur early in the disease process. These aggregates cause disruption of mitochondrial function in neurons, initiating a pathophysiological cascade leading to bio-energetic collapse and ultimately neuronal cell death. The detailed mechanisms are, however, largely unknown. In vitro studies in our laboratory aimed to, (i) investigate destabilisation of mitochondrial phospholipid membranes by these amyloid aggregates and, (ii) explore the protective effect of select polyphenolic compounds on mitochondria. Exposure of mitochondria, isolated from human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, to amyloid aggregates induced a strong and dose-dependent release of cytochrome c, reflecting damage to the outer and/or inner mitochondrial membranes. Importantly, targeting of aggregates to mitochondria was shown to be dependent upon cardiolipin, a mitochondria-specific phospholipid known to play a critical role in launching apoptosis. Moreover, the ability of amyloid aggregates to damage mitochondrial membranes was confirmed using a liposome permeabilisation assay. Finally, we found that the polyphenol compounds morin, rosmarinic acid, epigallocatechingallate and black tea extract were potent mito-protectants, and may thus delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Because of their high-energy metabolism, neurons are strictly dependent on mitochondria, which generate cellular ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. The mitochondrial genome encodes for critical components of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway machinery, and therefore, mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause energy production defects that frequently have severe neurological manifestations. Here, we review the principles of mitochondrial genetics and focus on prototypical mitochondrial diseases to illustrate how primary defects in mtDNA or secondary defects in mtDNA due to nuclear genome mutations can cause prominent neurological and multisystem features. In addition, we discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mitochondrial diseases, the cellular mechanisms that protect mitochondrial integrity, and the prospects for therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Neuron 12/2014; 84(6):1126-1142. DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.11.022 · 15.98 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 16, 2014