Pharmacological profile of SMP-797, a novel acyl-coenzyme a: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor with inducible effect on the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor.
ABSTRACT We investigated the pharmacological profile of SMP-797, a novel hypocholesterolemic agent. SMP-797 showed inhibitory effects on acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activities in various microsomes and in human cell lines, and hypocholesterolemic effects in rabbits fed a cholesterol-rich diet and hamsters fed a normal diet. In hamsters, the reduction of total cholesterol level by SMP-797 was mainly due to the decrease of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level rather than that of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol level. Interestingly, SMP-797 increased the hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor expression in vivo when it decreased the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. SMP-797 also increased low-density lipoprotein receptor expression in HepG2 cells like atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, although other acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor had no effect. In addition, SMP-797 had no effect on cholesterol synthesis in HepG2 cells. These results suggested that the increase of low-density lipoprotein receptor expression by SMP-797 was independent of its acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitory action and did not result from the inhibition of hepatic cholesterol synthesis. In conclusion, these results suggest that SMP-797 is a novel hypocholesterolemic agent showing a cholesterol-lowering effect in which the increase of hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor expression as well as the inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase is involved.
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ABSTRACT: CI-976, a new trimethoxy fatty acid anilide, is a potent and specific inhibitor of liver and intestinal acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) in vitro. Several in vivo approaches were used to determine the efficacy and sites of action of this compound in rats. CI-976 decreased non-high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and increased HDL-cholesterol in rats with pre-established dyslipidemia. High performance gel chromatographic separation of plasma lipoproteins also revealed that CI-976, but not CL 277,082, lowered low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol and elevated HDL-cholesterol. Bay o 2752, octimibate, melinamide, and SaH 58-035 were all less potent in vivo compared to CI-976 and CL 277,082, and CI-976 produced the greatest decrease in liver cholesteryl esters. Subcutaneous (SC) administration of CI-976 was also efficacious in cholesterol-fed animals. In sucrose-fed rats, oral and SC CI-976 administration potently lowered plasma triglycerides. Hepatic cholesteryl ester accumulation in the ethinyl estradiol-treated rat was also diminished by orally administered CI-976. ACAT activity and cholesteryl ester mass were dose-dependently decreased in the livers from cholesterol-fed rats treated with CI-976, suggesting a direct effect on the liver. In both hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglyceridemic models, CI-976 also decreased plasma apoB concentrations. In other experiments radiolabeled CI-976 accumulated in the liver after multiple doses. Time-dependent changes in biliary lipid and bile acid secretion suggested that free cholesterol did not accumulate in the liver but instead was excreted as such or as bile acid. Finally, inhibition of endogenous and exogenous intestinal cholesterol absorption was demonstrated using several in vivo techniques. The combined data strongly supports the hypothesis that orally administered CI-976 inhibits both intestinal and hepatic ACAT, and that both of these enzymes may be determinants of plasma lipid concentrations in the rat.The Journal of Lipid Research 03/1993; 34(2):279-94. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) is a rare Mendelian dyslipidemia characterized by markedly elevated plasma LDL levels, xanthomatosis, and premature coronary artery disease. LDL receptor function is normal, or only moderately impaired in fibroblasts from ARH patients, but their cultured lymphocytes show increased cell-surface LDL binding, and impaired LDL degradation, consistent with a defect in LDL receptor internalization. Recently, the disorder was shown to be caused by mutations in a phosphotyrosine binding domain protein, ARH, which is required for internalization of low density lipoproteins in the liver. This review summarizes the findings of new investigations into the pathophysiology and molecular genetics of ARH. All mutations that have been characterized to date preclude the synthesis of a full-length protein. GST-pulldown experiments indicate that the phosphotyrosine binding domain of ARH interacts with the internalization sequence (NPVY) in the cytoplasmic tail of LDLR, and that conserved motifs in the C-terminal portion of the protein bind to clathrin and to the beta2-adaptin subunit of AP-2. The available data suggest that ARH functions as an adaptor protein that couples LDLR to the endocytic machinery.Current Opinion in Lipidology 05/2003; 14(2):121-7. · 5.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The pharmacological profile of F 12511 (S)-2',3', 5'-trimethyl-4'-hydroxy-alpha-dodecylthio-phenylacetanilide, a new inhibitor of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (EC 188.8.131.52; ACAT), was evaluated by using different in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro, F 12511 was shown to be a highly potent inhibitor of ACAT activity in microsomal preparations from various animal species as well as of cholesterol esterification in relevant human cell lines in culture. The concentrations of F 12511 required to produce 50% inhibition of ACAT activity (IC(50) values) in microsomal preparations ranged from 41nM for hypercholesterolemic rabbit intestine to 223 nM for normocholesterolemic hamster liver. In whole cell assays using hepatic (Hep G2), intestinal (CaCo-2) and macrophagic (THP-1) cell lines, F 12511 inhibited ACAT activity with IC(50) values of 3, 7, and 71 nM, respectively. In vivo, orally administered F 12511 displayed high potency and efficacy as an antihypercholesterolemic compound in different cholesterol-fed animals (rat, guinea-pig, rabbit). For instance, in guinea-pigs the dose required to reduce plasma cholesterol levels by 30% (ED(30) value) was 0.008 mg.kg(-1.) In rabbits, an animal species prone to atherosclerosis, the hypocholesterolemic effect was accompanied by a dose-related reduction in the incidence of aortic fatty streaks that reached asymptote at 2.5 mg.kg(-1) and by an improvement of the impaired endothelial function. When given orally to chow-fed hamsters, F 12511 elicited a dose-related decrease in plasma cholesterol from 9% at 0.63 mg.kg(-1) up to 31% at 40 mg.kg(-1) associated with a preferential reduction in atherogenic lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and low density lipoproteins (LDL). Moreover, in the same dose range, F 12511 decreased hepatic cholesteryl ester concentrations and reduced liver ex vivo ACAT activity. By using a bioassay, ACAT inhibitory activity was present in plasma of treated hamsters 1 hr after oral administration of F 12511. Hence, the results in chow-fed hamsters are consistent with systemic and direct hepatic effects of F 12511. In guinea-pigs, an adreno-sensitive species, F 12511 did not impair the adrenal function (adrenocorticotrophic hormone challenge) at doses up to 2.5 mg.kg(-1,) far higher than those eliciting hypocholesterolemic effects in the same species. In conclusion, the results suggest that F 12511, a powerful and systemic ACAT inhibitor, constitutes an appropriate tool to determine whether the inhibition of ACAT constitutes an effective therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and of atherosclerosis in man.Biochemical Pharmacology 02/2001; 61(1):97-108. · 4.58 Impact Factor