Allergic rhinitis: Broader disease effects and implications for management
ABSTRACT Allergic rhinitis is a burdensome disease for a significant part of the population in both adults and children. Poorly controlled allergic rhinitis can trigger exacerbations of asthma, sinusitis, and otitis media, diseases with which it shares common pathophysiologic elements. Consequently, early diagnosis and treatment should be a priority for patients and physicians, not only to control the symptoms of allergic rhinitis but also to improve the management of associated diseases. Several pharmacologic therapies can be considered in an armamentarium that includes antihistamines (intranasal and systemic), intranasal cromolyn, intranasal anticholinergic agents, intranasal steroids, systemic steroids, immunotherapy, and, most recently, leukotriene receptor antagonists. Often, combinations of these treatments are used to maximize control of refractory symptoms.
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ABSTRACT: The symptoms of allergic rhinitis may be worsened by a viral respiratory infection. However, there are few data on the presence of respiratory virus in patients with allergic rhinitis. To evaluate whether patients with allergic rhinitis have an increased frequency of respiratory virus detection in a prospective case-control study. Fifty-eight adult patients diagnosed with perennial allergic rhinitis were evaluated from September 2011 through June 2012. A control group of 61 adult patients without allergy was included. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used to detect respiratory viruses in nasal lavage samples. Respiratory viruses were detected in 25 of 58 patients (43.1%) with perennial allergic rhinitis, but in only 15 of 61 control patients (24.6%). In virus-positive samples, multiple viruses were detected in 9 of 25 patients (36.0%) with perennial allergic rhinitis but in only 2 of 15 control patients (12.5%). Rhinovirus was the most common virus in patients without allergy and those with allergic rhinitis. There were significant differences in the detection rates of overall and multiple respiratory viruses and rhinovirus between the 2 groups (P < .05). However, in patients with allergic rhinitis, there was no statistically significant association between the detection of respiratory viruses and symptom scores. This study shows that there is a high prevalence of respiratory viruses, especially rhinovirus, in patients with allergic rhinitis. Subsequent studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of highly prevalent respiratory viruses in patients with allergic rhinitis.Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology 12/2013; 111(6):508-511. DOI:10.1016/j.anai.2013.08.024 · 2.75 Impact Factor
03/2014; 2(2):156-160.e2. DOI:10.1016/j.jaip.2014.01.010
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ABSTRACT: Nasal allergen challenge (NAC) leads to a nasal ocular reflex, which is augmented by allergic inflammation. This study was designed to confirm our previous observation that an intranasal steroid inhibits the nasal ocular reflex and to show that histamine does not play an important role in the genesis of this reflex. We performed a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, placebo (PL)-controlled, four-way crossover trial in subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis out of season. Subjects were randomized to receive 1 week pretreatment with intranasal PL and intraocular (PL/PL), intranasal PL and intraocular olopatadine (PL/OLO), intranasal fluticasone furoate (FF) and intraocular PL (FF/PL), and the combination (FF/OLO). Subjects then underwent NAC on 2 consecutive days. The number of sneezes and nasal and ocular symptoms were recorded, and levels of tryptase and histamine were measured in nasal lavages. NAC after PL/PL resulted in increase in symptoms, histamine, and tryptase after the challenge on the 2nd day. There was a reduction in eye symptoms on the 2nd day of challenge from 6.0 after PL/PL to 0 after FF/PL (p = 0.001), 2.5 after PL/OLO (p = 0.3), and 1.5 after FF/OLO (p = 0.003). Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the response after FF/PL versus FF/OLO and a significant difference between FF/PL and PL/OLO (p = 0.02). Levels of tryptase followed a similar trend. The number of eosinophils in nasal lavages on the 2nd day of challenge were also reduced by the treatment arms containing FF compared with PL. Our data confirm the existence of a nasal ocular reflex after NAC. OLO alone or the addition of OLO to FF does not impact ocular symptoms caused by the naso-ocular reflex, suggesting that mast cells are not activated to release histamine in the conjunctiva during this process.American Journal of Rhinology and Allergy 01/2013; 27(1):48-53. DOI:10.2500/ajra.2013.27.3841 · 2.18 Impact Factor