Cytokines in exhaled breath condensate of children with asthma and cystic fibrosis

Department of Paediatric Pulmonology, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology: official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology (Impact Factor: 2.6). 03/2006; 96(2):349-55. DOI: 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)61247-1
Source: PubMed


Inflammatory mediators in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) indicate ongoing inflammation in the lungs and might differentiate between asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF).
To evaluate the presence, concentration, and short-term variability of TH1- and TH2-mediated cytokines (interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha], interleukin 10 [IL-10], IL-5, IL-4, and IL-2) in EBC of children with asthma or CF and in controls and to analyze the discriminating ability of inflammatory markers in EBC between children with asthma or CF and controls.
Expired air was conducted through a double-jacketed glass tube cooled by circulating ice water. In 33 asthmatic children, 12 children with CF, and 35 control children, EBC was collected during tidal breathing. Cytokines were measured using flow cytometry.
Interleukin 2, IL-4, IFN-gamma, and IL-10 were detected in 16%, 16%, 11%, and 9%, respectively, of all samples in asthma and CF. Interleukin 5 and TNF-alpha were not detected in children with CF. Cytokine concentrations did not differ significantly in children with asthma vs CF. In controls, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-10 were detected in 9%, 14%, and 3%, respectively; IL-2, IL-4, and IL-5 were not detected in controls.
Cytokines such as IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-10, IL-5, IL-4, and IL-2 can be detected in EBC of children with asthma or CF. However, the concentrations found are close to the detection limits of the assay used. These findings emphasize the importance of developing more sensitive techniques for the analysis of EBC and of standardizing the EBC collection method.

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Available from: Philippe P R Rosias, Jan 06, 2014
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    • "However, if the same biomarker can be detected in samples collected using a non-invasive procedure, such as saliva or urine, these could then be prioritized for development, particularly for studies intended for pediatric populations. Efforts to develop non-invasive collection methods include analysis of immune components in saliva [19,20] or induced sputum [21] and exhaled breath condensate [22]. "
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    • "Using a chemiluminescence-based membrane protein array, expression of IL-4, IL-8, IL-17, TNF-α, RANTES, interferon-γ -inducible protein 10, transforming growth factor-β, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α and 1β in EBC were found elevated in steroid-naïve patients with asthma [Matsunage et al. 2006]. However, using flow cytometry, IL-2, IL-4, interferon-γ , and IL-10 were detected only in 16, 16, 11, and 9%, respectively, of all samples in patients with asthma and cystic fibrosis at EBC concentrations which were close to the detection limit of the assay [Robroeks et al. 2006]. Using a multiplex fluorescent bead immunoassay (cytometric bead array), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-12p70 have been found elevated in EBC patients with acute lung injury compared with healthy subjects [Sack et al. 2006]. "
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