Neuroproteomics in neurotrauma.

Center of Neuroproteomics and Biomarkers Research, McKnight Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.
Mass Spectrometry Reviews (Impact Factor: 8.05). 05/2006; 25(3):380-408. DOI: 10.1002/mas.20073
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neurotrauma in the form of traumatic brain injury (TBI) afflicts more Americans annually than Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease combined, yet few researchers have used neuroproteomics to investigate the underlying complex molecular events that exacerbate TBI. Discussed in this review is the methodology needed to explore the neurotrauma proteome-from the types of samples used to the mass spectrometry identification and quantification techniques available. This neuroproteomics survey presents a framework for large-scale protein research in neurotrauma, as applied for immediate TBI biomarker discovery and the far-reaching systems biology understanding of how the brain responds to trauma. Ultimately, knowledge attained through neuroproteomics could lead to clinical diagnostics and therapeutics to lessen the burden of neurotrauma on society.

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    ABSTRACT: Currently, drug abuse and addiction represent a global public health concern with about 13.6 million people using illicit drugs in the USA alone. Substance abuse intervenes in normal brain functioning, causing alterations in memory, behavior and neuronal physiology. Although many studies have been conducted to elucidate the mode of action of different drugs, the heterogeneous modes of drug intake led to a complicated profile of drug-induced brain changes involving neurotoxicity and addiction. Given the complex interplay of genes and proteins in mediating these effects, neuroproteomics analysis has been considered among the methods of choice to complement what has already been discovered and to create targeted therapies. In this review, we will focus on three drugs, namely cocaine, methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA). In the context of neuroproteomics, these drugs have been extensively studied by utilizing different experimental models, including primate and non-primate animals along with postmortem human samples. Even though there are many variations in the results, these drugs were shown to employ common pathways in eliciting their effects. Neuroproteomics analysis of these drugs has led to the identification of differentially expressed proteins involved in metabolism, oxidative stress, cell signaling, cytoskeleton, cell death and synaptic plasticity. Finally, this work will discuss recent findings from our laboratory by looking at a model of chronic methamphetamine abuse and its effect on different brain regions.
    06/2014; 3:38-52. DOI:10.1016/j.trprot.2014.04.001
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    ABSTRACT: Background Neurotrauma is a preventable public health problem whose quantum is said to be increasing in Third-World countries. This evaluation was performed to collate data which is needed to guide in designing, implementing, and evaluating public health prevention programs with respect to neurotrauma. Methods A single institution prospective study was carried out. Data was collected at the surgical emergency (SE) room over a year period (1st October 2012- 30th September 2013). These included patients demographics, cause of injury, region of the body involved, Glasgow coma scale score, and outcome. The patients were further divided into patients with traumatic brain (TBI) and spine injury (TSI). Analysis of the variables was by simple proportion, percentages, Chi-square and analysis of variance was used to determine the differences between group means. A probability (p) of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 2149 neurotrauma cases (38.8%) out of a total of 5541 surgical trauma cases were seen within the study period at our SE unit. Of the neurotrauma cases, 1621 were males, giving a male: female ratio of 3.1:1. The mean age was 31years (median 30years). The most common age group was 20-29 (29.6%) and 30-39years (29.6%). Assault was the cause of neurotrauma in 903 patients (42%), closely followed by road traffic injury in 744 patients (34.6%). Brain and spine injury separately occurred in 93.2% and 5.3% of cases respectively. Five hundred patients (23.3%) were resuscitated and referred to other centres due to lack of bed space. Forty (1.9%) patients were dead on arrival, while Twenty-six (1.2%) died while on treatment at the emergency room. Conclusion Neurotrauma is the most common form of trauma at our surgical emergency. Assault and road traffic injury (RTI) were the most common cause of TBI and TSI respectively, with RTI being the most common cause of moderate and severe TBI. The incidence and aetiology of TBI varies according to age and gender.
    Injury 11/2014; 45(11). DOI:10.1016/j.injury.2014.05.028 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Central nervous system-specific proteins (CSPs), transported across the damaged blood-brain-barrier (BBB) to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood (serum), might be promising diagnostic, prognostic and predictive protein biomarkers of disease in individual multiple sclerosis (MS) patients because they are not expected to be present at appreciable levels in the circulation of healthy subjects. We hypothesized that microwave &magnetic (M(2)) proteomics of CSPs in brain tissue might be an effective means to prioritize putative CSP biomarkers for future immunoassays in serum. To test this hypothesis, we used M(2) proteomics to longitudinally assess CSP expression in brain tissue from mice during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS. Confirmation of central nervous system (CNS)-infiltrating inflammatory cell response and CSP expression in serum was achieved with cytokine ELISPOT and ELISA immunoassays, respectively, for selected CSPs. M(2) proteomics (and ELISA) revealed characteristic CSP expression waves, including synapsin-1 and α-II-spectrin, which peaked at day 7 in brain tissue (and serum) and preceded clinical EAE symptoms that began at day 10 and peaked at day 20. Moreover, M(2) proteomics supports the concept that relatively few CNS-infiltrating inflammatory cells can have a disproportionally large impact on CSP expression prior to clinical manifestation of EAE.
    Scientific Reports 09/2014; 4:6210. DOI:10.1038/srep06210 · 5.08 Impact Factor

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