Low levels of docosahexaenoic acid identified in acute coronary syndrome patients with depression
ABSTRACT As deficiencies in n-3 PUFAs have been linked separately to depression and to cardiovascular disease, they could act as a higher order variable contributing to the established link between depression and cardiovascular disease. We therefore examine the relationship between depression and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including total n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Plasma phospholipid levels of n-3 PUFA were measured in 100 patients hospitalized with ACS. Current major depressive episode was assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Depression severity was assessed by the 18-item Depression in the Medically Ill (DMI-18) measure. Patients clinically diagnosed with current depression had significantly lower mean total n-3 PUFA and DHA levels. Higher DMI-18 depression severity scores were significantly associated with lower DHA levels, with similar but non-significant trends observed for EPA and total n-3 PUFA levels. The finding that low DHA levels were associated with depression variables in ACS patients may explain links demonstrated between cardiovascular health and depression, and may have prophylactic and treatment implications.
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- "The parent substrates from which n-3 and n-6 PUFA are derived (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA; and linoleic acid, LA; respectively) are essential fatty acids, as they can be derived only from the diet (Rees, Austin, & Parker, 2005; Sontrop & Campbell, 2006). This is of concern with regard to the typical Western dietary pattern (Oddy, Robinson, Ambrosini, O'Sullivan, de Klerk, Beilin et al., 2009), which is low in n-3 PUFA from oily fish and seafood. "
ABSTRACT: Objective: Essential polyunsaturated (omega-3 and omega-6) fatty acids have been proposed to play a role in the aetiology of mood disorders. However, a systematic review of observational studies has not yet been conducted. Therefore, our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the studies which have investigated the relationship between essential fatty acids and mood in the past 15 years. Methods: Four databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and ISI Web of Science) were searched for human observational studies of the relationship between essential fatty acids and mood that were published between 1995 and 2009. Results: The search yielded a total of 77 papers which met the inclusion criteria. Many of the studies were small, and the methods heterogeneous. Of the studies which investigated dietary fish intake and mood, 75% found a benefit. While 69% of the dietary intake studies observed an inverse relationship between mood and n-3 intake, 82% of the studies which investigated n-3 biomarker status and mood supported a significant inverse association between these two factors. Conclusions: The findings of the present review suggest that omega-3 fatty acids are potentially beneficial in enhancing mood and reducing the symptoms of mood disorders (including major depression and bipolar disorder), however the heterogeneity with respect to the methodologies employed by studies in the area renders it difficult to draw absolute conclusions. Further longitudinal studies are warranted in order to determine causality. Dietary fish intake appears to be beneficial in terms of enhancing mood.01/2011; 1(1):2157-167. DOI:10.5251/ajfn.2011.1.1.14.27
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ABSTRACT: Very long chain omega-3 fatty acids (w-3 PUFA) intake and fish consumption have been suggested as protective factors against neuropsychiatric disorders but there is scarcity of large cohort studies assessing this association. To assess the association between w-3-PUFA intake and fish consumption and mental disorders. A prospective cohort study was performed in 7,903 participants. W-3 PUFA intake and fish consumption were ascertained through a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The outcomes after 2 years of follow-up were: (1) Incident mental disorder (depression, anxiety, or stress), (2) incident depression, and (3) incident anxiety. Logistic regression models and generalized additive models were fit to assess the relationship between w-3 PUFA intake or fish consumption and the incidence of these outcomes. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. 173 cases of depression, 335 cases of anxiety, and 4 cases of stress were observed during 2-year follow-up. ORs (95% CI) of mental disorder for successive quintiles of energy-adjusted w-3 PUFA intake were 1 (reference), 0.72 (0.52-0.99), 0.79 (0.58-1.08), 0.65 (0.47-0.90), and 1.04 (0.78-1.40). Subjects with a moderate consumption of fish (third and fourth quintiles of consumption: median of each quintile 83.3 and 112 g/day, respectively) had a relative risk reduction higher than 30%. A potential benefit of w-3 PUFA intake on total mental disorders is suggested, although no linear trend was apparent.European Journal of Nutrition 10/2007; 46(6):337-46. DOI:10.1007/s00394-007-0671-x · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence from epidemiological, case-control and randomized clinical trials for a link between omega-3 deficiency and the development of mood disorders. This article examines recent evidence for this association. During the past year our understanding of the effect of omega-3 depletion on the structure and function of the brain has been furthered by research examining human brain tissue and by studies utilizing animal models of depression. Human and animal research has also provided further evidence for omega-3 affecting mood via its anti-inflammatory effects. Previous clinical trials indicated that omega-3 can be effective as an adjunctive treatment for those with treatment-resistant depression. More recent clinical trial data indicate that omega-3 may also be an effective monotherapy for childhood depression and for depressed mood in patients who engage in recurrent self-harm. The recent clinical trial data regarding omega-3 as a treatment for bipolar disorder are inconclusive, however, and clinical trials in postnatal depression are still lacking. This article reviews the most important recent papers in this burgeoning and interesting research area.Current Opinion in Psychiatry 02/2008; 21(1):19-24. DOI:10.1097/YCO.0b013e3282f29841 · 3.55 Impact Factor