As deficiencies in n-3 PUFAs have been linked separately to depression and to cardiovascular disease, they could act as a higher order variable contributing to the established link between depression and cardiovascular disease. We therefore examine the relationship between depression and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including total n-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Plasma phospholipid levels of n-3 PUFA were measured in 100 patients hospitalized with ACS. Current major depressive episode was assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Depression severity was assessed by the 18-item Depression in the Medically Ill (DMI-18) measure. Patients clinically diagnosed with current depression had significantly lower mean total n-3 PUFA and DHA levels. Higher DMI-18 depression severity scores were significantly associated with lower DHA levels, with similar but non-significant trends observed for EPA and total n-3 PUFA levels. The finding that low DHA levels were associated with depression variables in ACS patients may explain links demonstrated between cardiovascular health and depression, and may have prophylactic and treatment implications.
"Similar findings were reported in some studies conducted on depressed postmyocardial infarction  and acute coronary syndromes patients [143, 144] in which, compared with control group, lower levels of long-chain omega-3 PUFA as measured by a mean AA/EPA ratio were found. Moreover, a low DEA percentage and low omega-3 proportions of lipid profile predicted risk of suicidal behavior among depressed patients over the 2-year period . Other evidences come from a case-control study conducted on 150 subjects reporting an association between fatty acids with serotonergic and immunological markers in depressive patients but not in patients with somatization syndrome suggesting a different biological mechanism of depression and somatoform disorders . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The changing of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the food supply of Western societies occurred over the last 150 years is thought to promote the pathogenesis of many inflammatory-related diseases, including depressive disorders. Several epidemiological studies reported a significant inverse correlation between intake of oily fish and depression or bipolar disorders. Studies conducted specifically on the association between omega-3 intake and depression reported contrasting results, suggesting that the preventive role of omega-3 PUFA may depend also on other factors, such as overall diet quality and the social environment. Accordingly, tertiary prevention with omega-3 PUFA supplement in depressed patients has reached greater effectiveness during the last recent years, although definitive statements on their use in depression therapy cannot be yet freely asserted. Among the biological properties of omega-3 PUFA, their anti-inflammatory effects and their important role on the structural changing of the brain should be taken into account to better understand the possible pathway through which they can be effective both in preventing or treating depression. However, the problem of how to correct the inadequate supply of omega-3 PUFA in the Westernized countries' diet is a priority in order to set food and health policies and also dietary recommendations for individuals and population groups.
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 03/2014; 2014:313570. DOI:10.1155/2014/313570 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"The parent substrates from which n-3 and n-6 PUFA are derived (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA; and linoleic acid, LA; respectively) are essential fatty acids, as they can be derived only from the diet (Rees, Austin, & Parker, 2005; Sontrop & Campbell, 2006). This is of concern with regard to the typical Western dietary pattern (Oddy, Robinson, Ambrosini, O'Sullivan, de Klerk, Beilin et al., 2009), which is low in n-3 PUFA from oily fish and seafood. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Essential polyunsaturated (omega-3 and omega-6) fatty acids have been proposed to play a role in the aetiology of mood disorders. However, a systematic review of observational studies has not yet been conducted. Therefore, our aim was to conduct a systematic review of the studies which have investigated the relationship between essential fatty acids and mood in the past 15 years. Methods: Four databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and ISI Web of Science) were searched for human observational studies of the relationship between essential fatty acids and mood that were published between 1995 and 2009. Results: The search yielded a total of 77 papers which met the inclusion criteria. Many of the studies were small, and the methods heterogeneous. Of the studies which investigated dietary fish intake and mood, 75% found a benefit. While 69% of the dietary intake studies observed an inverse relationship between mood and n-3 intake, 82% of the studies which investigated n-3 biomarker status and mood supported a significant inverse association between these two factors. Conclusions: The findings of the present review suggest that omega-3 fatty acids are potentially beneficial in enhancing mood and reducing the symptoms of mood disorders (including major depression and bipolar disorder), however the heterogeneity with respect to the methodologies employed by studies in the area renders it difficult to draw absolute conclusions. Further longitudinal studies are warranted in order to determine causality. Dietary fish intake appears to be beneficial in terms of enhancing mood.
"Although several studies have documented that cigarette smoking is a risk factor in depressed patients [79,80]. We found no such correlation [49,81,82]. In this study, married subjects experienced fewer symptoms of depression, indicating that the presence of support affected depression in a positive manner [81,83]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite significant improvements in the treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD), it is still a major cause of mortality and morbidity among the Iranian population. Epidemiological studies have documented that risk factors including smoking and the biochemical profile are responsible for the development of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Psychological factors have been discussed as potential risk factors for coronary heart disease. Among emotional factors, depression correlates with coronary heart disease, particularly myocardial infarction.
This case-control study was conducted on 120 cases (69 males and 51 females) of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and 120 controls, with a mean age of 62.48 ± 15.39 years. Cases and controls were matched by age, residence and sex.
The results revealed that severe depression was independently associated with the risk of AMI (P = 0.025, OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-5.8). The analysis of variables indicated that risk factors for developing depression were unmarried, low levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), total dietary fiber (TDF) and carbohydrates. The levels of these dietary factors were lowest in severely depressed patients compared to those categorised as moderate or mild cases. Furthermore, severely depressed subjects were associated with higher levels of total cholesterol, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and WHR. Age, income, a family history of coronary heart disease, education level, sex, employment and smoking were not associated with severe depression.
The present study demonstrated that severe depression symptoms are independent risk factors for AMI. Furthermore, severe depression was associated with an unhealthy diet and AMI risk factors.
Lipids in Health and Disease 11/2010; 9(1):133. DOI:10.1186/1476-511X-9-133 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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