Shear stress induces hepatocyte PAI-1 gene expression through cooperative Sp1/Ets-1 activation of transcription.
ABSTRACT Partial hepatectomy causes hemodynamic changes that increase portal blood flow in the remaining lobe, where the expression of immediate-early genes, including plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), is induced. We hypothesized that a hyperdynamic circulatory state occurring in the remaining lobe induces immediate-early gene expression. In this study, we investigated whether the mechanical force generated by flowing blood, shear stress, induces PAI-1 expression in hepatocytes. When cultured rat hepatocytes were exposed to flow, PAI-1 mRNA levels began to increase within 3 h, peaked at levels significantly higher than the static control levels, and then gradually decreased. The flow-induced PAI-1 expression was shear stress dependent rather than shear rate dependent and accompanied by increased hepatocyte production of PAI-1 protein. Shear stress increased PAI-1 transcription but did not affect PAI-1 mRNA stability. Functional analysis of the 2.1-kb PAI-1 5'-promoter indicated that a 278-bp segment containing transcription factor Sp1 and Ets-1 consensus sequences was critical to the shear stress-dependent increase of PAI-1 transcription. Mutations of both the Sp1 and Ets-1 consensus sequences, but not of either one alone, markedly prevented basal PAI-1 transcription and abolished the response of the PAI-1 promoter to shear stress. EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed binding of Sp1 and Ets-1 to each consensus sequence under static conditions, which increased in response to shear stress. In conclusion, hepatocyte PAI-1 expression is flow sensitive and transcriptionally regulated by shear stress via cooperative interactions between Sp1 and Ets-1.
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ABSTRACT: Laminar shear stress promotes vascular integrity by inhibiting proteolysis of the extracellular matrix (ECM) surrounding the microvasculature. We hypothesized that the matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor TIMP-1 would be upregulated in endothelial cells exposed to shear stress. Microvascular endothelial cells isolated from rat or mouse skeletal muscles were exposed to laminar shear stress for 2, 4, or 24 h. A biphasic increase in TIMP-1 protein was observed at 2 and 24 h of shear stress exposure. Sp-1 siRNA prevented the increase in TIMP-1 after 2, but not 24, hours of shear exposure. TGFβ production and Smad2/3 phosphorylation are increased by shear stress. Inhibition of TGFβ signaling, either by use of the TGFβ receptor 1 inhibitor SB-431542 or with Smad 2/3 siRNA, abrogated the shear stress-induced increase in TIMP-1 mRNA after 24 h of shear stress exposure. These results suggest that both acute and chronic elevated laminar shear stress act to maintain vessel integrity through increasing TIMP-1 production, but that the TGFβ signaling pathway is essential to maintain TIMP-1 expression during chronic shear stress.Biochemistry and Cell Biology 02/2014; 92(1):77-83. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Death-domain-associated protein (DAXX) is a multifunctional protein that regulates a wide range of cellular signaling pathways for both cell survival and apoptosis. Regulation of DAXX gene expression remains largely obscure. We recently reported that berberine (BBR), a natural product derived from a plant used in Chinese herbal medicine, downregulates DAXX expression at the transcriptional level. Here, we further investigate the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional suppression of DAXX by BBR. By analyzing and mapping the putative DAXX gene promoter, we identified the core promoter region (from -161 to -1), which contains consensus sequences for the transcriptional factors Sp1 and Ets1. We confirmed that Sp1 and Ets1 bound to the core promoter region of DAXX and stimulated DAXX transcriptional activity. In contrast, BBR bound to the DAXX core promoter region and suppressed its transcriptional activity. Following studies demonstrated a possible mechanism that BBR inhibited the DAXX promoter activity through blocking or disrupting the association of Sp1 or Ets1 and their consensus sequences in the promoter. Downregulation of DAXX by BBR resulted in inhibition of MDM2 and subsequently, activation of p53, leading to cancer cell death. Our results reveal a novel possible mechanism: by competitively binding to the Sp1 and Ets1 consensus sequences, BBR inhibits the transcription of DAXX, thus inducing cancer cell apoptosis through a p53-dependent pathway.Laboratory Investigation advance online publication, 7 January 2013; doi:10.1038/labinvest.2012.172.Laboratory Investigation 01/2013; · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this paper, we discuss the basic design requirements for the development of physiologically meaningful in vitro systems comprising cells, scaffolds and bioreactors, through a bottom up approach. Very simple micro- and milli-fluidic geometries are first used to illustrate the concepts, followed by a real device case-study. At each step, the fluidic and mass transport parameters in biological tissue design are considered, starting from basic questions such as the minimum number of cells and cell density required to represent a physiological system and the conditions necessary to ensure an adequate nutrient supply to tissues. At the next level, we consider the use of three-dimensional scaffolds, which are employed both for regenerative medicine applications and for the study of cells in environments which better recapitulate the physiological milieu. Here, the driving need is the rate of oxygen supply which must be maintained at an appropriate level to ensure cell viability throughout the thickness of a scaffold. Scaffold and bioreactor design are both critical in defining the oxygen profile in a cell construct and are considered together. We also discuss the oxygen-shear stress trade-off by considering the levels of mechanical stress required for hepatocytes, which are the limiting cell type in a multi-organ model. Similar considerations are also made for glucose consumption in cell constructs. Finally, the allometric approach for generating multi-tissue systemic models using bioreactors is described.Processes. 07/2014; 2(3):548-569.