Article

Shear stress induces hepatocyte PAI-1 gene expression through cooperative Sp1/Ets-1 activation of transcription.

Department of Digestive and General Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Niigata University, Niigata, Japan.
AJP Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.65). 08/2006; 291(1):G26-34. DOI: 10.1152/ajpgi.00467.2005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Partial hepatectomy causes hemodynamic changes that increase portal blood flow in the remaining lobe, where the expression of immediate-early genes, including plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), is induced. We hypothesized that a hyperdynamic circulatory state occurring in the remaining lobe induces immediate-early gene expression. In this study, we investigated whether the mechanical force generated by flowing blood, shear stress, induces PAI-1 expression in hepatocytes. When cultured rat hepatocytes were exposed to flow, PAI-1 mRNA levels began to increase within 3 h, peaked at levels significantly higher than the static control levels, and then gradually decreased. The flow-induced PAI-1 expression was shear stress dependent rather than shear rate dependent and accompanied by increased hepatocyte production of PAI-1 protein. Shear stress increased PAI-1 transcription but did not affect PAI-1 mRNA stability. Functional analysis of the 2.1-kb PAI-1 5'-promoter indicated that a 278-bp segment containing transcription factor Sp1 and Ets-1 consensus sequences was critical to the shear stress-dependent increase of PAI-1 transcription. Mutations of both the Sp1 and Ets-1 consensus sequences, but not of either one alone, markedly prevented basal PAI-1 transcription and abolished the response of the PAI-1 promoter to shear stress. EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed binding of Sp1 and Ets-1 to each consensus sequence under static conditions, which increased in response to shear stress. In conclusion, hepatocyte PAI-1 expression is flow sensitive and transcriptionally regulated by shear stress via cooperative interactions between Sp1 and Ets-1.

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