Incretin mimetics and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors: potential new therapies for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT The emergence of the glucoregulatory hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide has expanded our understanding of glucose homeostasis. In particular, the glucoregulatory actions of the incretin hormone GLP-1 include enhancement of glucosedependent insulin secretion, suppression of inappropriately elevated glucagon secretion, slowing of gastric emptying, and reduction of food intake. Two approaches have been developed to overcome rapid degradation of GLP-1. One is the use of agents that mimic the enhancement of glucose-dependent insulin secretion, and potentially other antihyperglycemic actions of incretins, and the other is the use of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors, which reduce the inactivation of GLP-1, increasing the concentration of endogenous GLP-1. The development of incretin mimetics and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors opens the door to a new generation of antihyperglycemic agents to treat several otherwise unaddressed pathophysiologic defects of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We review the physiology of glucose homeostasis, emphasizing the role of GLP-1, the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus, the clinical shortcomings of current therapies, and the potential of new therapies -- including the newly approved incretin mimetic exenatide -- that elicit actions similar to those of GLP-1.
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ABSTRACT: A main target in the treatment of hypertension is the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). This enzyme is responsible for producing angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor. Therefore, one of the targets in the treatment of hypertension is to inhibit ACE activity. Hence, this study's aim is to use computational studies to demonstrate that the proposed heterocyclic compounds have a molecular affinity for ACE and that, furthermore, these heterocyclic compounds are capable of inhibiting ACE activity, thus avoiding the production of the vasopressor Angiotensin II. All this using computer-aided drug design, and studying the systems, with the proposed compounds, through molecular recognition process and compared with the compounds already on the market for hypertension.The Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal 01/2013; 7:30-38.
Article: Liraglutide[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Liraglutide (Victoza®) is a subcutaneously administered glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist produced by recombinant DNA technology and used as an adjunct to diet and exercise in the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This article reviews the clinical efficacy and tolerability of liraglutide in adults with type 2 diabetes, and provides a summary of its pharmacological properties. Recently published pharmacoeconomic studies of liraglutide are also reviewed. Administered subcutaneously, liraglutide (usually 1.2 or 1.8 mg once daily) generally produced greater improvements in glycaemic control than active comparators or placebo when administered as monotherapy or in combination with one or two oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) to adults with type 2 diabetes in numerous randomized, controlled phase III trials. These included six trials in the LEAD trial programme that was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of liraglutide across a continuum of antihyperglycaemic management for patients with type 2 diabetes. Liraglutide was generally well tolerated, with a low risk of hypoglycaemia evident, in the phase III trials. The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal and included nausea and diarrhoea; most events were mild to moderate in severity and decreased in incidence over time. In conclusion, liraglutide has an important place in the management of adults with type 2 diabetes across a continuum of care. As well as providing effective glycaemic control, liraglutide improves pancreatic β-cell function and leads to bodyweight loss, thereby addressing some of the unmet needs of patients treated with traditional OADs.Drugs 71(17). · 4.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As incidence rate of type II diabetes mellitus continues to rise, there is a growing need to identify novel therapeutic agents with improved efficacy and reduced side effects. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) is a multifunctional protein involved in many physiological processes. It deactivates the natural hypoglycemic incretin hormone effect. Inhibition of this enzyme increases endogenous incretin level, incretin activity and should restore glucose homeostasis in type II diabetic patients making it an attractive target for the development of new antidiabetic drugs. One of the interesting reported anti- DPP IV hits is Gemifloxacin which is used as a lead compound for the development of new DPP IV inhibitors. In the current work, design and synthesis of a series of N4-sulfonamido-succinamic, phthalamic, acrylic and benzoyl acetic acid derivatives was carried out. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for their in vitro anti-DPP IV activity. Some of them have shown reasonable bioactivity, where the most active one 17 was found to have an IC50 of 33.5 micro M.The Open Medicinal Chemistry Journal 11/2013; 7:39-48.